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Nitrogen Dioxide at Ambient Concentrations Induces Nitration and Degradation of PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors to Stimulate Plant Growth: A Hypothetical Model

Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
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Plants 2019, 8(7), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070198
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
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Abstract

Exposing Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings fed with soil nitrogen to 10–50 ppb nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for several weeks stimulated the uptake of major elements, photosynthesis, and cellular metabolisms to more than double the biomass of shoot, total leaf area and contents of N, C P, K, S, Ca and Mg per shoot relative to non-exposed control seedlings. The 15N/14N ratio analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that N derived from NO2 (NO2-N) comprised < 5% of the total plant N, showing that the contribution of NO2-N as N source was minor. Moreover, histological analysis showed that leaf size and biomass were increased upon NO2 treatment, and that these increases were attributable to leaf age-dependent enhancement of cell proliferation and enlargement. Thus, NO2 may act as a plant growth signal rather than an N source. Exposure of Arabidopsis leaves to 40 ppm NO2 induced virtually exclusive nitration of PsbO and PsbP proteins (a high concentration of NO2 was used). The PMF analysis identified the ninth tyrosine residue of PsbO1 (9Tyr) as a nitration site. 9Tyr of PsbO1 was exclusively nitrated after incubation of the thylakoid membranes with a buffer containing NO2 and NO2 or a buffer containing NO2 alone. Nitration was catalyzed by illumination and repressed by photosystem II (PSII) electron transport inhibitors, and decreased oxygen evolution. Thus, protein tyrosine nitration altered (downregulated) the physiological function of cellular proteins of Arabidopsis leaves. This indicates that NO2-induced protein tyrosine nitration may stimulate plant growth. We hypothesized that atmospheric NO2 at ambient concentrations may induce tyrosine nitration of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors in Arabidopsis leaves, followed by degradation of PYR/PYL/RCAR, upregulation of target of rapamycin (TOR) regulatory complexes, and stimulation of plant growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrogen dioxide; Arabidopsis thaliana; plant growth; cell enlargement; cell proliferation; early flowering; tyrosine nitration; PsbO nitrogen dioxide; Arabidopsis thaliana; plant growth; cell enlargement; cell proliferation; early flowering; tyrosine nitration; PsbO
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Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, H. Nitrogen Dioxide at Ambient Concentrations Induces Nitration and Degradation of PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors to Stimulate Plant Growth: A Hypothetical Model. Plants 2019, 8, 198.

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