Special Issue "Feature Papers in Oxygen"

A special issue of Oxygen (ISSN 2673-9801).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2022) | Viewed by 8263

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. John T. Hancock
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
Interests: redox signaling; reactive oxygen species; hydrogen sulfide; hydrogen gas; nitric oxide
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Oxygen aims to emphasize the importance of this molecule in both chemistry and biology. Written by members of the Editorial Board and leading researchers in the field, articles will cover the recent research of some of these groups, whilst other manuscripts will be reviews and opinion pieces. It is hoped that ideas and thoughts raised here will be an inspiration to young researchers who are interested in the biology and chemistry of oxygen. Therefore, this SI should cover areas such as oxidative stress and redox in cells, uses of oxygen in biological reactions, role of oxygen-based molecules in cell signaling, the structure and reactivity of oxygen-based molecules, atmospheric and dissolved oxygen, and how oxygen can be used in industries and for medical therapies.

Prof. Dr. John Hancock
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Oxygen is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chemical properties of oxygen
  • electrochemistry
  • reactive oxygen species and oxygen-containing free radicals
  • antioxidants and redox
  • hypoxia and oxygen levels
  • oxygen -based cell signalling
  • chemical properties of oxides
  • oxygen molecular structures
  • oxygen acid-base reactions
  • uses of oxygen
  • diatomic oxygen
  • physical properties of oxygen
  • chemical reactivity of oxygen
  • atmospheric oxygen
  • dissolved oxygen
  • oxygen-based therapies

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Lost in Translation: Exploring microRNA Biogenesis and Messenger RNA Fate in Anoxia-Tolerant Turtles
Oxygen 2022, 2(2), 227-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2020017 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Red-eared slider turtles face natural changes in oxygen availability throughout the year. This includes long-term anoxic brumation where they reduce their metabolic rate by ~90% for months at a time, which they survive without apparent tissue damage. This metabolic rate depression (MRD) is [...] Read more.
Red-eared slider turtles face natural changes in oxygen availability throughout the year. This includes long-term anoxic brumation where they reduce their metabolic rate by ~90% for months at a time, which they survive without apparent tissue damage. This metabolic rate depression (MRD) is underlaid by various regulatory mechanisms, including messenger RNA (mRNA) silencing via microRNA (miRNA), leading to mRNA decay or translational inhibition in processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules. Regulation of miRNA biogenesis was assessed in red-eared slider turtle liver and skeletal muscle via immunoblotting. Hepatic miRNA biogenesis was downregulated in early processing steps, while later steps were upregulated. These contradictory findings indicate either overall decreased miRNA biogenesis, or increased biogenesis if sufficient pre-miRNA stores were produced in early anoxia. Conversely, muscle showed clear upregulation of multiple biogenesis steps indicating increased miRNA production. Additionally, immunoblotting indicated that P-bodies may be favoured by the liver for mRNA storage/decay during reoxygenation with a strong suppression of stress granule proteins in anoxia and reoxygenation. Muscle however showed downregulation of P-bodies during anoxia and reoxygenation, and upregulation of stress granules for mRNA storage during reoxygenation. This study advances our understanding of how these champion anaerobes regulate miRNA biogenesis to alter miRNA expression and mRNA fate during prolonged anoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Article
Cell Localization of DPI-Dependent Production of Superoxide in Reproductive Tissues of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)
Oxygen 2022, 2(2), 79-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2020007 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are compounds derived from oxygen with important implications in biological processes in plants, some of them related to reproduction. Among ROS, superoxide is the primary oxidant, since an array of other ROS are eventually derived from this anion. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are compounds derived from oxygen with important implications in biological processes in plants, some of them related to reproduction. Among ROS, superoxide is the primary oxidant, since an array of other ROS are eventually derived from this anion. Therefore, analysis of the molecular systems able to generate this molecule and the cellular compartmentalization of these events is of paramount importance. We have used the fluorochrome DCFH2-DA and the chromogenic substrate NBT in association with DPI (a specific inhibitor of Rboh enzymes generating superoxide in plants) in combination with confocal microscopy and stereomicroscopy, respectively to identify cell localization of ROS in general, and superoxide accumulation in olive reproductive tissues. A significant production of both ROS and superoxide has been described, showing a fairly precise spatial and temporal location throughout olive flower development. The reduction of the NBT signal after the addition of DPI suggests that the generation of superoxide is largely due to Rboh or other flavin oxidase activity. At the subcellular level, accumulation of O2●− has been located in the plasma membrane of mature pollen and germinated pollen, as well as in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Article
Lung Diffusing Capacity in Dutch Special Operations Forces Divers Exposed to Oxygen Rebreathers over 18 Years
Oxygen 2022, 2(2), 40-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2020005 - 31 Mar 2022
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Exposure to hyperoxic conditions can induce pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Divers of the Special Operations Forces (SOF) use oxygen rebreather systems during dives, and therefore are frequently exposed to hyperoxic conditions. Few studies have reported on POT in this population. This study reports [...] Read more.
Exposure to hyperoxic conditions can induce pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Divers of the Special Operations Forces (SOF) use oxygen rebreather systems during dives, and therefore are frequently exposed to hyperoxic conditions. Few studies have reported on POT in this population. This study reports on long-term pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and diffusing capacity in SOF divers to test the hypothesis that these measures of pulmonary function do not change clinically significantly during their career. The Royal Netherlands Navy performs yearly medical assessments of its military divers. All PFT and diffusing capacity data of SOF divers between the years 2000 and 2020 were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. The study included 257 SOF divers (median age, 27; interquartile range, 24–32), with 1612 dive medical assessments and a maximum follow-up time of 18.8 years. Alveolar volume (VA) and the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (TLCO) were significantly lower at baseline in smokers. Although these parameters were within the normal range, they declined over time and were significantly associated with age and years of diving. Smoking additionally affected TLCO and the transfer coefficient for carbon monoxide (KCO). TLCO and KCO were reduced by years of diving with oxygen rebreathers, albeit over clinically insignificant ranges, but smoking increased these changes by factors of 10 and 15, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Article
An Inexpensive Incubator for Mammalian Cell Culture Capable of Regulating O2, CO2, and Temperature
Oxygen 2022, 2(1), 22-30; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2010003 - 14 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Mammalian cell culture is widely used for discovery and development. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the importance of maintaining physiologically-relevant conditions in cell culture. Although oxygen level is a particularly important consideration, it is rarely regulated by experimentalists. The atmospheric O [...] Read more.
Mammalian cell culture is widely used for discovery and development. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the importance of maintaining physiologically-relevant conditions in cell culture. Although oxygen level is a particularly important consideration, it is rarely regulated by experimentalists. The atmospheric O2 levels commonly used in cell culture are significantly higher than those experienced by most mammalian cells in vivo, leaving cells susceptible to oxidative damage, senescence, transformation, and otherwise aberrant physiology. A barrier to incorporating O2 regulation into most cell culture workflows has been the expense of investing in new equipment, as the vast majority of laboratory CO2 incubators do not regulate O2. Here, we describe an inexpensive (<CAD 1000), portable and user-friendly O2/CO2 incubator that can establish and maintain physiological O2, CO2, and temperature values within their physiological ranges. We used an Arduino-based approach to add O2 and CO2 control to a temperature-regulating egg incubator. Our incubator was tested against a commercial laboratory O2/CO2 incubator. Using Presens OxoDish technology, we demonstrate that at a setpoint value of 5% gas-phase incubator O2, media O2 averaged 5.03 (SD = 0.03) with a range of 4.98–5.09%. MCF7, LNCaP and C2C12 cell lines cultured in the incubator displayed normal morphology, proliferation, and viability. Culture for up to one week produced no contamination. Thus, our incubator provides an inexpensive means of maintaining physioxia in routine mammalian cell culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Review

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Review
Conquering Space with Crops That Produce Ample Oxygen and Antioxidants
Oxygen 2022, 2(2), 211-226; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2020016 - 06 Jun 2022
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Abstract
Sustainable long-term space missions require regenerative life support from plants. Traditional crop plants lack some features desirable for use in space environments. The aquatic plant family Lemnaceae (duckweeds) has enormous potential as a space crop, featuring (i) fast growth, with very high rates [...] Read more.
Sustainable long-term space missions require regenerative life support from plants. Traditional crop plants lack some features desirable for use in space environments. The aquatic plant family Lemnaceae (duckweeds) has enormous potential as a space crop, featuring (i) fast growth, with very high rates of O2 production and CO2 sequestration, (ii) an exceptional nutritional quality (with respect to radiation-fighting antioxidants and high-quality protein), (iii) easy propagation and high productivity in small spaces, and (iv) resilience to the stresses (radiation, microgravity, and elevated CO2) of the human-inhabited space environment. These traits of Lemnaceae are placed into the context of their unique adaptations to the aquatic environment. Furthermore, an overview is provided of the challenges of galactic cosmic radiation to plant and human physiology and the mechanisms involved in oxidative injury and the prevention/mitigation of such effects by antioxidant micronutrients. A focus is placed on the carotenoid zeaxanthin accumulated by Lemnaceae in unusually high amounts and its role in counteracting system-wide inflammation, cognitive dysfunction, and other oxidative injuries in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Review
Oxidative Stress and Its Role in Cd-Induced Epigenetic Modifications: Use of Antioxidants as a Possible Preventive Strategy
Oxygen 2022, 2(2), 177-210; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2020015 - 29 May 2022
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) represents one of the main mechanisms of toxicity induced by environmental pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). OS is a natural physiological process where the presence of oxidants, such as reactive oxygen-derived species (ROS), outweighs the strategy of antioxidant defenses, culminating [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) represents one of the main mechanisms of toxicity induced by environmental pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). OS is a natural physiological process where the presence of oxidants, such as reactive oxygen-derived species (ROS), outweighs the strategy of antioxidant defenses, culminating in the interruption of signaling and redox control. It has been suggested that Cd increases ROS mainly by inducing damage to the electron transport chain and by increasing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and the concentration of free iron (Fe), as well as causing a decrease in antioxidant defense. On the other hand, OS has been related to changes in the biology of the epigenome, causing adverse health effects. Recent studies show that Cd generates alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA (ncRNA) expression. However, the role of OS in Cd-induced epigenetic modifications is still poorly explored. Therefore, this review provides an update on the basic concepts of OS and its relationship with Cd-induced epigenetic changes. Furthermore, the use of antioxidant compounds is proposed to mitigate Cd-induced epigenetic alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Review
Solid and Liquid Oxygen under Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields
Oxygen 2022, 2(2), 152-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2020013 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Oxygen is a unique molecule that possesses a spin quantum number S=1. In the condensed phases of oxygen, the delicate balance between the antiferromagnetic interaction and van der Waals force results in the various phases with different crystal structures. By [...] Read more.
Oxygen is a unique molecule that possesses a spin quantum number S=1. In the condensed phases of oxygen, the delicate balance between the antiferromagnetic interaction and van der Waals force results in the various phases with different crystal structures. By applying ultrahigh magnetic fields, the antiferromagnetic coupling between O2 molecules breaks, and novel high-field phases can appear. We have investigated the physical properties of condensed oxygen under ultrahigh magnetic fields and have found that the stable crystal structure of solid oxygen changes around 100 T. Even in liquid oxygen, we observed a strong acoustic attenuation, which indicates the fluctuation of local molecular arrangements. These results demonstrate that magnetic fields can modulate the packing structure of oxygen through spin-lattice coupling. Our study implies the possibility of controlling oxygen-related (bio-)chemical processes by using an external magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Review
Free Radical Properties, Source and Targets, Antioxidant Consumption and Health
Oxygen 2022, 2(2), 48-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2020006 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 449
Abstract
Free radicals have acquired growing importance in the fields of biology and medicine. They are produced during many different endogenous and exogenous processes. Mitochondria are the main source of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced at cell level. The overproduction of free radicals [...] Read more.
Free radicals have acquired growing importance in the fields of biology and medicine. They are produced during many different endogenous and exogenous processes. Mitochondria are the main source of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced at cell level. The overproduction of free radicals can damage macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. This leads to tissue damage in various chronic and degenerative diseases. Antioxidants play a crucial role in the body’s defense against free radicals. This review concerns the main properties of free radicals, their sources and deleterious effects. It highlights the potential role of the dietary supplementation of antioxidants and discusses unsolved problems regarding antioxidant supplements in the prevention and therapy of diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Review
A Brief History of Oxygen: 250 Years on
Oxygen 2022, 2(1), 31-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2010004 - 15 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Although there has been some controversy surrounding exactly when oxygen was first discovered, it is likely that that accolade should go to Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who isolated oxygen in 1772, or even a year earlier. Others since then have been given the credit [...] Read more.
Although there has been some controversy surrounding exactly when oxygen was first discovered, it is likely that that accolade should go to Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who isolated oxygen in 1772, or even a year earlier. Others since then have been given the credit for the instrumental work leading to the discovery including Joseph Priestley in 1774 and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Oxygen, a paramagnetic, diradical gaseous (at room temperature) molecule, is instrumental to life as we know it. It is also crucial to some medical therapies, used in multiple industries and has even been found on other planets. The importance of oxygen cannot be overplayed. Now, 250 years since oxygen was discovered, it is timely to revisit some of the history, the controversies and look at how oxygen has evolved during that time. Here, a few of the highlights in oxygen research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
Review
Beneficial Effects of Antioxidants in Male Infertility Management: A Narrative Review
Oxygen 2022, 2(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen2010001 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Background: Infertility, defined as the failure to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse, affects 50–80 million people worldwide. A male factor is involved in approximately 20–30% of cases. In the etiology of male infertility, the association between poor semen quality and [...] Read more.
Background: Infertility, defined as the failure to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse, affects 50–80 million people worldwide. A male factor is involved in approximately 20–30% of cases. In the etiology of male infertility, the association between poor semen quality and oxidative stress (OS) is well known. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) allow the oxidation of DNA, proteins, and lipids of sperm cells, modifying their vitality, motility, and morphology. Methods: To evaluate the effects of antioxidants on sperm in infertile men, we queried the MEDLINE database (via the PubMed interface) for published studies in the last 10 years (2011–2021). The following keywords were used: “infertility” and -“inositol”, -“alpha-lipoic acid”, -“zinc”, -“folate”, -“coenzyme Q10”, -“selenium”, and -“vitamin”. Results: Inositol regulates OS levels in sperm cells thanks to its role in mitochondrial reactions and is involved in several processes favoring sperm–oocyte interactions. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) reduces ROS damage and improves semen parameters in terms of spermatozoa’s motility, morphology, and count. Poor zinc nutrition may be related to low quality of sperm. Supplementation of folate plus zinc has a positive effect on the sperm concentration and morphology. Supplementation with CoQ10 increases sperm concentration, total and progressive motility. Selenium (Se) supplementation improves the overall semen quality and is related to a higher ejaculated volume. Among vitamins, only vitamin B12 shows a positive effect on semen quality; it increases sperm count and motility and reduces sperm DNA damage. Conclusions: In men showing low-quality semen, diet supplementation with antioxidants may improve the sperm quality by alleviating OS-induced sperm damage and enhancing hormone synthesis and spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology. Future clinical trials should be focused on the possible association of several antioxidants to take advantage of combined mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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Review
Role of Oxygen Radicals in Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus on Tau Protein
Oxygen 2021, 1(2), 96-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen1020010 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Oxygen free radical burst is a prominent early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Posttranslational modifications of Tau protein, primarily hyper-phosphorylation and truncation, are indicated as critical mediators of AD pathology. This finding is confirmed by the high levels of oxidative [...] Read more.
Oxygen free radical burst is a prominent early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Posttranslational modifications of Tau protein, primarily hyper-phosphorylation and truncation, are indicated as critical mediators of AD pathology. This finding is confirmed by the high levels of oxidative stress markers and by the increased susceptibility to oxygen radicals found in cultured neurons and in brains from transgenic animal models expressing toxic Tau forms, in concomitance with a dramatic reduction in their viability/survival. Here, we collect the latest progress in research focused on the reciprocal and dynamic interplay between oxygen radicals and pathological Tau, discussing how these harmful species cooperate and/or synergize in the progression of AD. In this context, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in determining Tau pathology, and vice versa, primarily could be able to define novel biomarkers of early stages of human tauopathies, including AD, and then to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating, halting, or reversing disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen)
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