Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 6638

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Moulay Ismail University of Meknes, Errachidia, Morocco
Interests: chemoprevention by natural products; antioxidants; anti-inflammatory compounds; cholesterol metabolism; natural products biosynthesis; phytochemistry; hyphenated chromatographic techniques; hemisynthesis; nuclear magnetic resonance; mass spectrometry
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Guest Editor Assistant
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ibn Zohr University, Laayoune 70000, Morocco
Interests: natural products; chemical characterization; biological activities
* Assistant Professor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of plants for therapeutic properties is a practice that dates back many centuries. Egyptians, the Chinese, and Indians are among the oldest people who have used natural remedies for therapeutic goals. Medicinal herbs and extracts have extensively been studied for their efficacy in medication and have received particular attention as growth and health promoters.

Natural products derived from plants constitute an important source of therapeutic agents that have applications in traditional pharmacopeia. Even though modern drugs have replaced some natural preparations traditionally used to control diseases, because of their promising therapeutic effects, scientists and health organizations still allow the use of alternative medicine to treat diseases. Since some of the secondary plant metabolites used in modern medicine were discovered through ethnobotanical investigations, empirical studies of various traditional plant preparations are useful for screening and selecting plants with medicinal activities. For decades, medicinal plants have played an important role in pharmacological research and the development of drugs. Chemicals produced by plants are used as therapeutics, as raw materials for drug manufacturing, and as models to design synthetic molecules used pharmacologically.

Medicinal plants are largely used by many people worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, with or without medical supervision. In response to customer demand for healthy products, a wide range of plant-derived consumables has been introduced into worldwide markets, contributing to extending shelf life, maintaining, and improving organoleptic and nutritional qualities. However, the extensive use of medicinal plants raises several concerns related to their safety and efficacy. As a result, more research is still needed to evaluate plant species prior to any use in medications.

Therefore, considering the high interest in plant-derived products as a growing challenge for drug development, and their biotechnological processes, this Special Issue invites submissions of research and review articles regarding the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant extracts.

Dr. Farid Khallouki
Guest Editor

Mohammed Bourhia
Guest Editor Assistant

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • newly introduced methods for plant extraction
  • eco-friendly formulations with antibacterial- and antioxidant-based plant extracts
  • plant extract identification/characterization
  • mode of action of plant extracts with antibacterial and antioxidant potential
  • the relationship between chemical structure and antibacterial and antioxidant properties

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3324 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity, Antibacterial, Anti-Motility, and Anti-Biofilm Effects of Myrothamnus flabellifolius Welw. Leaves and Stem Defatted Subfractions
by Mashilo Mash Matotoka and Peter Masoko
Plants 2024, 13(6), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13060847 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The formation of biofilms underscores the challenge of treating bacterial infections. The study aimed to assess the antioxidant, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, anti-motility, and anti-biofilm effects of defatted fractions from Myrothamnus flabellifolius (resurrection plant). Antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide [...] Read more.
The formation of biofilms underscores the challenge of treating bacterial infections. The study aimed to assess the antioxidant, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, anti-motility, and anti-biofilm effects of defatted fractions from Myrothamnus flabellifolius (resurrection plant). Antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide assays. Cytotoxicity was screened using a brine shrimp lethality assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using the micro-dilution and growth curve assays. Antibiofilm potential was screened using the crystal violet and tetrazolium reduction assay. Liquid–liquid extraction of crude extracts concentrated polyphenols in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions. Subsequently, these fractions had notable antioxidant activity and demonstrated broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against selected Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and Mycobacterium smegmatis (MIC values < 630 μg/mL). Growth curves showed that the bacteriostatic inhibition by the ethyl acetate fractions was through the extension of the lag phase and/or suppression of the growth rate. The sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ethyl acetate fractions inhibited the swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae by 100% and eradicated more than 50% of P. aeruginosa biofilm biomass. The polyphenolic content of M. flabellifolius plays an important role in its antibacterial, anti-motility, and antibiofilm activity, thus offering an additional strategy to treat biofilm-associated infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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21 pages, 4749 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Ingredients and Modes of the Methanol-Phase Extract from the Fruit of Amomum villosum Lour.
by Kaiyue Zhang, Fengfeng Cao, Yueliang Zhao, Hengbin Wang and Lanming Chen
Plants 2024, 13(6), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13060834 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 657
Abstract
Epidemics of infectious diseases threaten human health and society stability. Pharmacophagous plants are rich in bioactive compounds that constitute a safe drug library for antimicrobial agents. In this study, we have deciphered for the first time antibacterial ingredients and modes of the methanol-phase [...] Read more.
Epidemics of infectious diseases threaten human health and society stability. Pharmacophagous plants are rich in bioactive compounds that constitute a safe drug library for antimicrobial agents. In this study, we have deciphered for the first time antibacterial ingredients and modes of the methanol-phase extract (MPE) from the fruit of Amomum villosum Lour. The results have revealed that the antibacterial rate of the MPE was 63.64%, targeting 22 species of common pathogenic bacteria. The MPE was further purified by high performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC), and three different constituents (Fractions 1–3) were obtained. Of these, the Fraction 2 treatment significantly increased the cell membrane fluidity and permeability, reduced the cell surface hydrophobicity, and damaged the integrity of the cell structure, leading to the leakage of cellular macromolecules of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens (p < 0.05). Eighty-nine compounds in Fraction 2 were identified by ultra HPLC-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) analysis, among which 4-hydroxyphenylacetylglutamic acid accounted for the highest 30.89%, followed by lubiprostone (11.86%), miltirone (10.68%), and oleic acid (10.58%). Comparative transcriptomics analysis revealed significantly altered metabolic pathways in the representative pathogens treated by Fraction 2 (p < 0.05), indicating multiple antibacterial modes. Overall, this study first demonstrates the antibacterial activity of the MPE from the fruit of A. villosum Lour., and should be useful for its application in the medicinal and food preservative industries against common pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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17 pages, 2948 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Hemagglutinin and Hemolytic Activities of Chemically Characterized Extracts from Origanum grosii (L.) and Thymus pallidus (L.)
by Hind Zejli, Amira Metouekel, Otmane Zouirech, Imane Maliki, Abdelfattah El Moussaoui, Aziza Lfitat, Fatima Zahra Bousseraf, Khalid S. Almaary, Hiba-Allah Nafidi, Farid Khallouki, Mohammed Bourhia, Mustapha Taleb and Abdelfattah Abdellaoui
Plants 2024, 13(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13030385 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Origanum grosii (L.) and Thymus pallidus (L.) are medicinal plants recognized for their uses in traditional medicine. In this context, the aim of this article is to highlight the results of a phytochemical analysis (HPLC), with particular emphasis on the antioxidant (DPPH, TAC, [...] Read more.
Origanum grosii (L.) and Thymus pallidus (L.) are medicinal plants recognized for their uses in traditional medicine. In this context, the aim of this article is to highlight the results of a phytochemical analysis (HPLC), with particular emphasis on the antioxidant (DPPH, TAC, and FRAP), analgesic, anti-inflammatory, haemagglutinin-test-related, and hemolytic activities of the total extracts of these plants. Phytochemical analysis via HPLC revealed that licoflavone C (30%) is the main compound in Origanum grosii, while hesperidin (43%) is found in T. pallidus. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Origanum grosii and Thymus pallidus using the DPPH, TAC, and FRAP methods revealed an IC50 of the order of 0.085 mg/mL and 0.146 mg/mL, an EC50 of the order of 0.167 mg/mL and 0.185 mg/mL, and a total antioxidant capacity of between 750 mg EQ/g and 900 mg EQ/g, respectively. Analgesic evaluations revealed writhes inhibition of the order of 97.83% for O. grosii and 90% for T. pallidus. In addition, both plant extracts showed limited hemolytic activity, not exceeding 30% at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory potential showed edema inhibition of the order of 94% (800 mg/kg) for O. grosii and 86% (800 mg/kg) for T. pallidus. These results highlight the potential applications of these extracts in pharmacological research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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22 pages, 2855 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Bioactive Compounds in Some Apple Vinegar Samples and Their Biological Activities
by Youness El Abdali, Hamza Saghrouchni, Mohammed Kara, Ibrahim Mssillou, Aimad Allali, Yousef A. Bin Jardan, Nesibe Ebru Kafkas, El-Mehdi El-Assri, Hiba-Allah Nafidi, Mohammed Bourhia, Khalid S. Almaary, Noureddine Eloutassi and Abdelhak Bouia
Plants 2023, 12(22), 3850; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12223850 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Apple vinegar is highly recommended for nutrition due to its health benefits and bioactive components. However, the apple cultivar greatly influences the quality of the vinegar. In this research, our focus was on examining the impact of four different apple cultivars on the [...] Read more.
Apple vinegar is highly recommended for nutrition due to its health benefits and bioactive components. However, the apple cultivar greatly influences the quality of the vinegar. In this research, our focus was on examining the impact of four different apple cultivars on the physicochemical attributes, chemical composition, as well as biological properties—including antidepressant and anti-inflammatory activities—of vinegar. Interestingly, the physicochemical properties of vinegar and the contents of acetic acid and polyphenols depend on the apple cultivars. HPLC chromatographic analysis showed that citric acid (820.62–193.63 mg/100 g) and gallic acid (285.70–54.40 µg/g) were mostly abundant in the vinegar samples. The in vivo results showed that administration of Golden Delicious apple vinegar (10 mL/kg) to adult Wistar rats reduced carrageenan-induced inflammation by 37.50%. The same vinegar sample exhibited a significant antidepressant effect by reducing the rats’ immobility time by 31.07% in the forced swimming test. Due to its high acidity, Golden Delicious vinegar was found to be more effective against bacteria, particularly Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans, resulting in a MIC value of 31.81 mg/mL. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of various vinegar samples was found to be powerful, displaying optimal values of IC50 = 65.20 mg/mL, 85.83%, and 26.45 AAE/g in the DPPH, β-carotene decolorization and TAC assays, respectively. In conclusion, the apple cultivars used in this study impact the chemical composition and biological activities of vinegar, which may help demonstrate the importance of raw material selection for the production of vinegar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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23 pages, 2563 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Insecticidal Properties of Chemically Characterized Essential Oils Extracted from Mentha longifolia: In Vitro and In Silico Analysis
by Meryem Tourabi, Ghizlane Nouioura, Hanane Touijer, Asmae Baghouz, Asmae El Ghouizi, Mohamed Chebaibi, Meryem Bakour, Driss Ousaaid, Khalid S. Almaary, Hiba-Allah Nafidi, Mohammed Bourhia, Khallouki Farid, Badiaa Lyoussi and Elhoussine Derwich
Plants 2023, 12(21), 3783; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12213783 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The present study aimed to explore the phytochemical profile, and evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties, of Moroccan Mentha longifolia L. essential oil (ML-EO) using in vitro and in silico assays. Noteworthily, as chromatography (GC-MS/MS) revealed that ML-EO is majorly composed of [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to explore the phytochemical profile, and evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties, of Moroccan Mentha longifolia L. essential oil (ML-EO) using in vitro and in silico assays. Noteworthily, as chromatography (GC-MS/MS) revealed that ML-EO is majorly composed of piperitenone oxide (53.43%), caryophyllene (20.02%), and (−) germacrene D (16.53%). It possesses excellent antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 1.49 ± 0.00 for DPPH and 0.051 ± 0.06 μg/mL for ABTS. Moreover, the RP and TAC activities were 0.80 ± 0.01 μg/mL and 315.532 ± 0.00 mg EAA/g, respectively. ML-EO exhibited a potent antimicrobial effect, specifically against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It also exhibited strong antifungal ability, especially against Candida albicans. Regarding insecticidal activity, for ML-EO, a dose of 20 µL/mL produced a complete reduction in fecundity, fertility, and emergence of adult C. maculatus with mortality rates reaching 100%. In silico results showed that the antioxidant activity is mostly attributed to α-Cadinol, the antibacterial efficiency is attributed to piperitenone oxide, and antifungal capacity is related to cis-Muurola-4(15),5-diene and piperitenone oxide. Accordingly, ML-EO has high potential to be used as an alternative for preserving food and stored grain and protecting them against microbes and insect pests in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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10 pages, 1628 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Nymphaea pubescens (Pink Water Lily) Leaf Extracts
by Boontarika Thongdonphum, Kittima Vanichkul, Adun Bunchaleamchai and Pannapa Powthong
Plants 2023, 12(20), 3588; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12203588 - 16 Oct 2023
Viewed by 982
Abstract
This research comparatively investigates the in vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts from Nymphaea pubescens (pink water lily) leaves against pathogenic bacteria. The experimental extracts are aqueous, acetonic, and 95% ethanolic N. pubescens extracts; and the pathogenic bacteria being studied include Aeromonas hydrophila, [...] Read more.
This research comparatively investigates the in vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts from Nymphaea pubescens (pink water lily) leaves against pathogenic bacteria. The experimental extracts are aqueous, acetonic, and 95% ethanolic N. pubescens extracts; and the pathogenic bacteria being studied include Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio harveyi, which are commonly found in freshwater fish and brackish aquatic animals. The ethanolic N. pubescens extract achieves the highest bacterial inhibitory effects against V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the ethanolic extract against A. hydrophila and V. harveyi are 10 mg/mL; and 2.5 mg/mL against V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. The ethanolic N. pubescens extract is effective against V. parahaemolyticus. The high-performance liquid chromatography results show that, in the phenolic acids group, gallic acid is the most dominant (0.600–3.21% w/w), followed by sinapic acid (0.37–0.83% w/w). In the flavonoids group, catechin is the most dominant (0.02–1.08% w/w), followed by rutin (0.002–0.03% w/w). Essentially, the ethanolic N. pubescens extract can potentially be used as a natural antibiotic agent to treat bacterial infections in fish and aquatic animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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