Special Issue "Advances in Genetics and Breeding of Grain Crops"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2022 | Viewed by 1050

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Rajib Roychowdhury
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO) – The Volcani Center, Rishon Lezion, Israel
Interests: crop genetics and genomics; marker-assisted breeding; disease resistance in plants; abiotic stress tolerance
Dr. Francisco Fuentes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul. Casilla 306-22, Santiago, Chile
Interests: plant genetic improvement; plant genetic resources; integrated crop production systems; bioprospecting of natural products; nutrigenomic
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

All the human inhabitants and domesticated animals of our planet depend on grain crops for food and feed. Grain crops are field crops, and are categorized into major cereals (wheat, rice, maize, and rye), minor cereals (barley and oat), small grains (sorghum, teff, and millets), pseudocereals (quinoa and buckwheat), legumes (groundnut, soybean, pea, chickpea, cowpea, bean, lentil and grams), and others (e.g., sesame). These grain crops are used as major carbohydrate sources, protein sources, and edible oils. However, the ongoing changing climate negatively impacts grain crops by reducing the yield and quality attributes. Breeding these crops is a means of sustainable agriculture, in order to produce climate-smart grain with higher productivity and nutritive quality. Grain researchers are attempting to apply various approaches to improve grains, some of which follow: manipulating agronomical practices, assessing the interaction of the crops with multiple environments, breeding strategies involving the incorporation of beneficial traits, utilizing ever losing ancient genetic resources in breeding, high-throughput in-field phenotyping by using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and spectral platforms, finding the responsible genes and their mechanism of action for particular traits of interest, genetic analysis and QTLs for abiotic stress (drought, salinity, heat, cold, heavy metals and UV), tolerance and resistance to various diseases caused by fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens, mutagenesis and gene editing technologies to validate gene functionality, etc. As we are unable to manipulate the climate at the macroscale, scientific research on grain crops, using modern breeding technologies, can delimit the barrier to improve grains for the world's inhabitants.

Dr. Rajib Roychowdhury
Dr. Francisco Fuentes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • grain genetic resources
  • domestication traits
  • quality improvement
  • yield (grain number and weight) improvement
  • abiotic stress tolerance
  • heavy metal stress
  • disease resistance
  • Genotype–environment interaction (GxE)
  • genomic-assisted breeding
  • UAV and spectral analysis
  • marker-assisted selection and breeding
  • genomics strategies to understand beneficial traits
  • QTL mapping
  • mutagenesis
  • gene editing

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Article
Comparative Mutagenic Effectiveness and Efficiency of Gamma Rays and Sodium Azide in Inducing Chlorophyll and Morphological Mutants of Cowpea
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101322 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency are the most important factors determining the success of mutation breeding, a coherent tool for quickly enhancing genetic diversity in crops. However, conclusive evidence of using an effective and efficient dose of gamma (γ) rays and sodium azide (SA) [...] Read more.
Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency are the most important factors determining the success of mutation breeding, a coherent tool for quickly enhancing genetic diversity in crops. However, conclusive evidence of using an effective and efficient dose of gamma (γ) rays and sodium azide (SA) for genetic improvement is scant. The present study assesses genetic diversity in M2 mutants of cowpea and evaluates mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of the single and combination doses of γ rays and SA. In M0 generation, 7200 M1 seeds obtained by SA treatment (0.01—0.1%) and γ irradiation (100—1000 Gy) at a dose rate of 11.58 Gy/min were sown to raise M1 generation. A total of 57,620 M2 seeds were generated from the M1 generation of two varieties—Gomati VU-89 and Pusa-578, from which 47,650 seeds germinated. Moreover, plants (38,749) that survived were screened for chlorophyll and morphological mutations. Among the mutagens, SA followed by γ rays + SA and γ rays was most effective in inducing higher frequency and a broader spectrum of chlorophyll mutants. A wide range of morphological mutants affecting every growth stage was recorded with the highest frequency in 400 Gy γ rays + 0.04% SA treatment. These morphological mutants with desirable agronomic traits represent a valuable genetic resource for future breeding programs. This study revealed the potency of γ rays and SA in increasing genetic diversity and demonstrated the successful conduct of induced mutagenesis in the cowpea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Genetics and Breeding of Grain Crops)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Producing haploid inducible lines by CRISPR-Cas9-mediated editing of OsMATL
Authors: Xiongxia Jin1; Jianhua Wang1; Tong Sun1; Silan Chen1; Chao Ouyang1; Yiting Mai1; Jin Yang2; Chuanying Fang3; Baoguang An1*
Affiliation: 1Hainan Bolian Rice Gene Technology Co., Ltd.
2 Nanchang University
3 Hainan University
Abstract: Traditional breeding requires multiple generations of selfing or backcrossing to obtain homozygous lines with excellent genes, but double-haploid breeding methods generally only need 2 generations, which greatly accelerates the breeding process. Double-haploid breeding process in maize has been applied for many years, and the corresponding haploid-inducing gene MATL has also been cloned. In this study, OsMATL was edited by in an elite indica rice CRISPR/Cas technology. It was found that the mutation of OsMATL leading to low seed setting rate. Two different mutation alleles (9311HI-2-5/21) were selected as male parents to pollinate with five receptors to investigate the haploid induction rate. The results showed that the haploid induction rates from different mutation alleles of the OsMATL gene varied with the highest induction rate reaching 10.34%. And the induction rates were not the same among different female parents. Overall, the haploid inducible line 9311HI-2-5 created in this study can be used in rice breeding to produce homozygous genetic resources, which would be beneficial to improve breeding efficiency.

Title: Comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and sodium azide in inducing chlorophyll and morphological mutants of cowpea
Authors: Aamir Raina; Rafiul Amin Laskar; Mohammad Rafiq Wani; Samiullah Khan; Parvaiz Ahmad
Affiliation: Mutation Breeding Laboratory, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Abstract: Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency are the most important factors determining the success of mutation breeding, a coherent tool for quickly enhancing genetic diversity in crops. However, conclusive evidence of using an effective and efficient dose of gamma (γ) rays and sodium azide (SA) for genetic improvement is scanty. The present study assesses genetic diversity in M2 mutants of cowpea and evaluates mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of the single and combination doses of γ rays and SA. In M0 generation, 7200 M1 seeds obtained by SA treatment (0.01, 0.1%) and γ irradiation (100 - 1000 Gy) at a dose rate of 11.58 Gy/min were sown to raise M1 generation. A total of 57620 M2 seeds were generated from the M1 generation of two varieties—Gomati VU-89 and Pusa-578 in which 47650 (82.69%) seeds germinated, of which 38749 (81.32%) plants survived were screened for chlorophyll and morphological mutations. Among the mutagens, SA followed by γ rays + SA and γ rays was most effective in inducing higher frequency and a broader spectrum of chlorophyll mutants. A wide range of morphological mutants affecting every growth stage was recorded with the highest frequency in 400 Gy γ rays+0.04% SA treatment. These morphological mutants with desirable agronomic traits represent a valuable genetic resource for future breeding programmes. This study revealed the potency of γ rays and SA in increasing genetic diversity and demonstrated the successful conduct of induced mutagenesis in the cowpea.

Title: Genetic Analysis in Grain Legume (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) for Yield Improvement and Identifying Heterotic Hybrids.
Authors: Umakanta Sarker
Affiliation: Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh.
Abstract: The selected mungbean genotypes were investigated for combining ability and heterosis based on their yield and yield contributing characteristics. Fifteen F1 populations generated by half-diallel mating and six parental lines were planted in three replications in a randomized complete block design at the Pulse Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Ishurdi, Pabna. Results showed highly significant variations within parents and F1s and demonstrated a wide genetic variability for the studied characters. Thus, the chance of hereditary improvement utilizing the selected genetic pools of mungbean is possible. Analysis of variance indicated that genotypes, general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) mean square values were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) for all measured traits except mean square for days to flowering, days to maturity, and pod length which indicated the genetic diversity of the parents and the importance of both additive and non-additive gene effects in the inheritance of the measured traits respectively. A higher effect of SCA than GCA was observed for plant height and seeds per pod pointed out to be the preponderance of non-additive gene effects in the expression of these characters. Based on per se performance and GCA of the parents, BARI Mung-1, PS-7 and BMXK1-14004 were found as the best general combiners for yield per plant. In the context of SCA, five hybrids viz. BMXK1-14004 × Sonali mung, BMXK1-14004 × PS-7, BMXK1-14004 × BINA Mung-8, Sukumar × PS-7, and BARI Mung-1 × BINA Mung-8 were professed as promising hybrid and good specific combiners. The most significant heterosis was observed at 26.09% over standard variety and 20.20% over better parent for seed yield per plant in the cross BMXK1-14004 × Sonali mung and BMXK1-14004 × PS-7 respectively which indicated a higher heterosis rate for yield and yield contributing traits. These parents and crosses could be utilized for further use in breeding programs to improve in yield of mungbean.

Title: Identification of Stable Rice Hybrids in Different Locations of Bangladesh
Authors: Umakanta Sarker
Affiliation: Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh.
Abstract: Twenty-six (26) rice hybrids were evaluated at three locations. Data were normally distributed after running the Shapiro-Wilk test. Plant height and effective tillers/hill showed leptokurtic distribution, while the rest of the attributes had platykurtic distribution. Most of the traits were significant for variety, locations, and variety × locations. For yield stability, the data were analyzed using Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) and Genotype and Genotype Environment Interaction (GGE). Among the 26 hybrid combinations BRRI99A × BRRI38R, BRRI hybrid dhan5 exhibited high yielding at three locations following BRRI99A × BRRI45R, BRRI99A × BRRI31R, IR79156A × BRRI38R, BRRI hybrid dhan3 were selected for mega environments: - Gaipur and Ishwardi. Among the tested location Gazipur (E2) and Ishwardi (E3) were identified as mega environments for the hybrid combination BRRI99A × BRRI36R, BRRI99A × BRRI49R, IR79156A × BRRI31R, IR79156A × BRRI38R, BRRI hybrid dhan5, BRRI99A × BRRI38R, BRRI99A × BRRI45R, BRRI99A × BRRI31R based on mean performance and stability. Gazipur and Ishwardi was the best environment because their discriminative and representative ability was remarkable. The hybrid evaluation, as well as area identification for hybrid rice breeding in Bangladesh, were revealed in this study. The hybrid BRRI99A × BRRI38R, BRRI99A × BRRI36R, and IR79156A × Rline7 belonged to the medium to long slender grain type. Nowadays, citizens of Bangladesh prefer fine-grain rice. So, these hybrids were used for commercial cultivation over locations.

Title: Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Path Coefficient Analysis in T. Aman Rice Genotypes
Authors: Umakanta Sarker
Affiliation: Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh.
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out with 20 genotypes of T. Aman rice at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Salna, Gazipur-1706. The study was performed to evaluate the genetic variability, character association, and path coefficient based on yield and different yield contributing agronomic characters. Significant variations were observed among the genotypes for all the characters studied. The high mean, range, and genotypic variances observed for most of the characters indicated a wide range of variation for these traits. All the characters indicated the minimum influence of environment on the expression of the trait and genetic factors had a significant role in the expressivity of these characters. High heritability and high to moderate genetic advance in percent of mean were recorded for all the characters except panicle length. Based on mean, range and all genetic parameters, selection of all the traits except panicle length would be effective for the improvement of T. Aman rice genotypes. A correlation study revealed that selection based on plant height, number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length, number of filled spikelets per panicle, flag leaf length, spikelet sterility percentage, and harvest index would be effective for increasing the grain yield of rice. Path coefficient analysis revealed that direct selection of the number of filled spikelets per panicle, spikelet sterility%, and harvest index would be effective for improving the grain yield of rice.

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