Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 34559

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology (ARRIAM), Sh. Podbelskogo 3, 196608 Saint Petersburg, Russia
Interests: interactions between plants and beneficial microorganisms; root exudation and biological rhizosphere processes; heavy metal tolerance of plant-microbe symbiotic systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants form symbioses with various microorganisms, including mycorrhizal fungi, nodule bacteria, and endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria and fungi. The taxonomy, properties, and mechanisms of influence of these microorganisms on plants are diverse, and a huge number of publications are devoted to these issues. An important aspect of the integration of plants with microorganisms is the formation of superorganismal systems that adapt to the environment and its unfavorable changes through the joint evolution of macro- and microsymbionts. Information is accumulating that plants use symbiotic microorganisms to adapt to stressful conditions and that microorganisms provide themselves with nutrients and ecological niches favorable for maintaining populations under these conditions. However, many studies in this area are limited to ascertaining and describing the observed effects. This issue is aimed at discussing and deciphering the mechanisms of effective functioning of symbiotic plant–microbial systems under stressful conditions, including establishing what role in such interactions is played by the species and intraspecific characteristics of the plant, species, and strains of microorganisms, phytohormones, root exudates, and the impact of partners on the rhizosphere and the environment. Of particular interest is obtaining information about the functioning of plant–microbial systems in the presence of combined stress factors.

Prof. Dr. Andrey A. Belimov
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • mycorrhiza
  • phytohormones
  • PGPR
  • phytoremediation
  • plant-microbe integractions
  • rhizobia
  • rhizosphere
  • root exudates
  • symbiosis

Published Papers (16 papers)

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16 pages, 2523 KiB  
Article
Ralstonia solanacearum Suppresses Tomato Root Growth by Downregulation of a Wall-Associated Receptor Kinase
by Sushuang Liu, Qi Xue, Shuying Zhu, Yanmin Liu and Huasong Zou
Plants 2023, 12(20), 3600; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12203600 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
The root architecture of a range of host plants is altered in response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection. This work aimed to identify host genes involved in root development during R. solanacearum infection. A deficient mutant of the type III secretion system regulator hrpB [...] Read more.
The root architecture of a range of host plants is altered in response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection. This work aimed to identify host genes involved in root development during R. solanacearum infection. A deficient mutant of the type III secretion system regulator hrpB was created in R. solanacearum GMI1000. The hrpB mutant was impaired in virulence but showed a similar suppressive effect as wild-type GMI1000 on tomato root development. Based on comparative transcriptome analysis, 209 genes were found that showed the same changed expression pattern in GMI1000 and hrpB mutant infected roots relative to uninoculated roots. Among them, the wall-associated receptor kinase WAKL20 was substantially downregulated in GMI1000 and hrpB mutant infected roots. Knockdown of WAKL20 led to a shorter primary root length and fewer lateral roots in tomato as well as in Nicotiana benthamiana. The WAKL20 is a pivotal target suppressed by R. solanacearum to shape the altered root development during infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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19 pages, 7689 KiB  
Article
Aluminum-Immobilizing Rhizobacteria Modulate Root Exudation and Nutrient Uptake and Increase Aluminum Tolerance of Pea Mutant E107 (brz)
by Andrey A. Belimov, Alexander I. Shaposhnikov, Tatiana S. Azarova, Oleg S. Yuzikhin, Edgar A. Sekste, Vera I. Safronova and Igor A. Tikhonovich
Plants 2023, 12(12), 2334; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12122334 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
It is well known that plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) increase the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses; however, the counteraction of Al toxicity has received little attention. The effects of specially selected Al-tolerant and Al-immobilizing microorganisms were investigated using pea cultivar Sparkle and its [...] Read more.
It is well known that plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) increase the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses; however, the counteraction of Al toxicity has received little attention. The effects of specially selected Al-tolerant and Al-immobilizing microorganisms were investigated using pea cultivar Sparkle and its Al-sensitive mutant E107 (brz). The strain Cupriavidus sp. D39 was the most-efficient in the growth promotion of hydroponically grown peas treated with 80 µM AlCl3, increasing the plant biomass of Sparkle by 20% and of E107 (brz) by two-times. This strain immobilized Al in the nutrient solution and decreased its concentration in E107 (brz) roots. The mutant showed upregulated exudation of organic acids, amino acids, and sugars in the absence or presence of Al as compared with Sparkle, and in most cases, the Al treatment stimulated exudation. Bacteria utilized root exudates and more actively colonized the root surface of E107 (brz). The exudation of tryptophan and the production of IAA by Cupriavidus sp. D39 in the root zone of the Al-treated mutant were observed. Aluminum disturbed the concentrations of nutrients in plants, but inoculation with Cupriavidus sp. D39 partially restored such negative effects. Thus, the E107 (brz) mutant is a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of plant–microbe interactions, and PGPR plays an important role in protecting plants against Al toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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18 pages, 1998 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Endophytic Fungi to Drought Tolerance in Araucaria araucana Seedlings
by Daniel Chávez, Gustavo Rivas, Ángela Machuca, Cledir Santos, Christian Deramond, Ricardo Aroca and Pablo Cornejo
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112116 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
In its natural distribution, Araucaria araucana is a plant species usually exposed to extreme environmental constraints such as wind, volcanism, fires, and low rainfall. This plant is subjected to long periods of drought, accentuated by the current climate emergency, causing plant death, especially [...] Read more.
In its natural distribution, Araucaria araucana is a plant species usually exposed to extreme environmental constraints such as wind, volcanism, fires, and low rainfall. This plant is subjected to long periods of drought, accentuated by the current climate emergency, causing plant death, especially in its early growth stages. Understanding the benefits that both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and endophytic fungi (EF) could provide plants under different water regimes would generate inputs to address the above-mentioned issues. Here, the effect of AMF and EF inoculation (individually and combined) on the morphophysiological variables of A. araucana seedlings subjected to different water regimes was evaluated. Both the AMF and EF inocula were obtained from A. araucana roots growing in natural conditions. The inoculated seedlings were kept for 5 months under standard greenhouse conditions and subsequently subjected to three different irrigation levels for 2 months: 100, 75, and 25% of field capacity (FC). Morphophysiological variables were evaluated over time. Applying AMF and EF + AMF yielded a noticeable survival rate in the most extreme drought conditions (25% FC). Moreover, both the AMF and the EF + AMF treatments promoted an increase in height growth between 6.1 and 16.1%, in the production of aerial biomass between 54.3 and 62.6%, and in root biomass between 42.5 and 65.4%. These treatments also kept the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm 0.71 for AMF and 0.64 for EF + AMF) stable, as well as high foliar water content (>60%) and stable CO2 assimilation under drought stress. In addition, the EF + AMF treatment at 25% FC increased the total chlorophyll content. In conclusion, using indigenous strains of AMF, alone or in combination with EF, is a beneficial strategy to produce A. araucana seedlings with an enhanced ability to tolerate prolonged drought periods, which could be of great relevance for the survival of these native species under the current climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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24 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
Mitigating Osmotic Stress and Enhancing Developmental Productivity Processes in Cotton through Integrative Use of Vermicompost and Cyanobacteria
by Khadiga Alharbi, Emad M. Hafez, Alaa El-Dein Omara and Hany S. Osman
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091872 - 3 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
There is an urgent demand for biostimulant amendments that can sustainably alleviate osmotic stress. However, limited information is available about the integrated application of vermicompost and a cyanobacteria extract on cotton plants. In 2020 and 2021, two field experiments were carried out in [...] Read more.
There is an urgent demand for biostimulant amendments that can sustainably alleviate osmotic stress. However, limited information is available about the integrated application of vermicompost and a cyanobacteria extract on cotton plants. In 2020 and 2021, two field experiments were carried out in which twelve combinations of three irrigation intervals were employed every 14 days (Irrig.14), 21 days (Irrig.21), and 28 days (Irrig.28) along with four amendment treatments (a control, vermicompost, cyanobacteria extract, and combination of vermicompost + cyanobacteria extract) in salt-affected soil. The integrative use of vermicompost and a cyanobacteria extract resulted in an observed improvement in the physicochemical attributes; non-enzymatic antioxidants (free amino acids, proline, total soluble sugars, and phenolics); and antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) and a decrease in the levels of oxidative damage indicators (H2O2 and MDA). Significant augmentation in the content of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid concentration, relative water content, stomatal conductance, and K+ was also observed. In conjunction with these findings, noticeable decreases in the content of Na+ and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the degree of lipid peroxidation (MDA) proved the efficacy of this technique. Consequently, the highest cotton yield and productivity as well as fiber quality were achieved when vermicompost and a cyanobacteria extract were used together under increasing irrigation intervals in salt-affected soil. In conclusion, the integrated application of vermicompost and a cyanobacteria extract can be helpful for obtaining higher cotton productivity and fiber quality compared with the studied control and the individual applications of the vermicompost or the cyanobacteria extract under increasing irrigation intervals within salt-affected soil. Additionally, it can also help alleviate the harmful impact of these abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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21 pages, 8041 KiB  
Article
Composted Bagasse and/or Cyanobacteria-Based Bio-Stimulants Maintain Barley Growth and Productivity under Salinity Stress
by Khadiga Alharbi, Emad M. Hafez, Alaa El-Dein Omara and Yasser Nehela
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091827 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Soil and water salinity are among the most fatal environmental challenges that threaten agricultural production worldwide. This study investigated the potential impact(s) of soil amendment using composted bagasse and/or foliar application of cyanobacteria-based bio-stimulants (Arthrospira platensis, also known as Spirulina platensis [...] Read more.
Soil and water salinity are among the most fatal environmental challenges that threaten agricultural production worldwide. This study investigated the potential impact(s) of soil amendment using composted bagasse and/or foliar application of cyanobacteria-based bio-stimulants (Arthrospira platensis, also known as Spirulina platensis) to combat the harmful effect(s) of using saline water to irrigate barley plants grown in salt-affected soils during 2020/2021 and 2021/2022. Briefly, the dual application of composted bagasse and cyanobacteria-based bio-stimulants significantly improved the soil properties, buffered the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and enhanced the activity of soil enzymes (urease and dehydrogenase). Moreover, both treatments and their combination notably augmented the water relations of barley plants under salinity stress. All treatments significantly decreased stomatal conductance (gs) and relative water content (RWC) but increased the electrolyte leakage (EL) and balanced the contents of Na+ and K+, and their ratio (K+/Na+) of barley leaves under salinity stress compared with those irrigated with fresh water during the 2020/2021 and 2021/2022 seasons. Additionally, composted bagasse and cyanobacteria-based bio-stimulants diminished the oxidative stress in barley plants under salinity stress by improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX). Consequently, the combination of composted bagasse and cyanobacteria extract resulted in superior yield-related traits such as spike length, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, and harvest index. Collectively, our findings suggest that the integrative application of composted bagasse and cyanobacteria is promising as a sustainable environmental strategiy that can be used to improve soil properties, plant growth, and productivity of not only barley plants but also maybe other cereal crops irrigated with saline water in salt-affected soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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15 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Typha latifolia and Their Effect in Plants Exposed to Either Pb or Cd
by Jesús Rubio-Santiago, Alejandro Hernández-Morales, Gisela Adelina Rolón-Cárdenas, Jackeline Lizzeta Arvizu-Gómez, Ruth Elena Soria-Guerra, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Jocabed Eunice Rubio-Salazar, Stephanie Rosales-Loredo, Juan Ramiro Pacheco-Aguilar, José Roberto Macías-Pérez, Liseth Rubí Aldaba-Muruato and Juan Vázquez-Martínez
Plants 2023, 12(3), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030498 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Plant-associated bacteria in heavy-metal-contaminated environments could be a biotechnological tool to improve plant growth. The present work aimed to isolate lead- and cadmium-tolerant endophytic bacteria from the roots of Typha latifolia growing in a site contaminated with these heavy metals. Endophytic bacteria were [...] Read more.
Plant-associated bacteria in heavy-metal-contaminated environments could be a biotechnological tool to improve plant growth. The present work aimed to isolate lead- and cadmium-tolerant endophytic bacteria from the roots of Typha latifolia growing in a site contaminated with these heavy metals. Endophytic bacteria were characterized according to Pb and Cd tolerance, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria activities, and their effect on T. latifolia seedlings exposed and non-exposed to Pb and Cd. Pb-tolerant isolates were identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans JEP3, P. fluorescens JEP8, and P. gessardii JEP33, while Cd-tolerant bacteria were identified as P. veronii JEC8, JEC9, and JEC11. They all exert biochemical activities, including indole acetic acid synthesis, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. Plant–bacteria interaction assays showed that P. azotoformans JEP3, P. fluorescens JEP8, P. gessardii JEP33, and P. veronii JEC8, JEC9, JEC11 promote the growth of T. latifolia seedlings by increasing the root and shoot length, while in plants exposed to either 5 mg/L of Pb or 10 mg/L of Cd, all bacterial isolates increased the shoot length and the number of roots per plant, suggesting that they are plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria that could contribute to T. latifolia adaptation to the heavy metal polluted site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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22 pages, 2741 KiB  
Article
Stimulating the Growth, Anabolism, Antioxidants, and Yield of Rice Plants Grown under Salt Stress by Combined Application of Bacterial Inoculants and Nano-Silicon
by Khadiga Alharbi, Hany S. Osman, Emadeldeen Rashwan, Emad M. Hafez and Alaa El-Dein Omara
Plants 2022, 11(24), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11243431 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
The growth and development of rice face many issues, including its exposure to high soil salinity. This issue can be alleviated using new approaches to overwhelm the factors that restrict rice productivity. The objective of our investigation was the usage of the rhizobacteria [...] Read more.
The growth and development of rice face many issues, including its exposure to high soil salinity. This issue can be alleviated using new approaches to overwhelm the factors that restrict rice productivity. The objective of our investigation was the usage of the rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas koreensis and Bacillus coagulans) as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) and nano-silicon, which could be a positive technology to cope with the problems raised by soil salinity in addition to improvement the morpho-physiological properties, and productivity of two rice varieties (i.e., Giza 177 as salt-sensitive and Giza 179 as salt-tolerant). The findings stated that the application of combined PGPRs and nano-Si resulted in the highest soil enzymes activity (dehydrogenase and urease), root length, leaf area index, photosynthesis pigments, K+ ions, relative water content (RWC), and stomatal conductance (gs) while resulted in the reduction of Na+, electrolyte leakage (EL), and proline content. All these improvements are due to increased antioxidant enzymes activity such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD), which decreased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) under soil salinity in rice plants compared to the other treatments. Combined application of PGPRs and nano-Si to Giza 177 significantly surpassed Giza 179, which was neither treated with PGPR nor nano-Si in the main yield components (number of grains/panicles, 1000 grain weight, and grain yield as well as nutrient uptake. In conclusion, both PGPRs and nano-Si had stimulating effects that mitigated the salinity-deleterious effects and encouraged plant growth, and, therefore, enhanced the grain yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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17 pages, 2584 KiB  
Article
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silica Nanoparticles Stimulate Sugar Beet Resilience to Irrigation with Saline Water in Salt-Affected Soils
by Khadiga Alharbi, Emad Hafez, Alaa El-Dien Omara, Abdelmoniem Awadalla and Yasser Nehela
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3117; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223117 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation) severely reduce plant growth and sugar beet yield. Seed inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and/or foliar spraying with silica nanoparticles (Si-NP) is deemed one of the most promising new strategies that have the [...] Read more.
Combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation) severely reduce plant growth and sugar beet yield. Seed inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and/or foliar spraying with silica nanoparticles (Si-NP) is deemed one of the most promising new strategies that have the potential to inhibit abiotic stress. Herein, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants were treated with two PGPR (Pseudomonas koreensis MG209738 and Bacillus coagulans NCAIM B.01123) and/or Si-NP, during two successive seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 to examine the vital role of PGPR, Si-NP, and their combination in improving growth characteristics, and production in sugar beet plants exposed to two watering treatments (fresh water and saline water) in salt-affected soil. The results revealed that combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation) increased ion imbalance (K+/Na+ ratio; from 1.54 ± 0.11 to 1.00 ± 0.15) and declined the relative water content (RWC; from 86.76 ± 4.70 to 74.30 ± 3.20%), relative membrane stability index (RMSI), stomatal conductance (gs), and chlorophyll content, which negatively affected on the crop productivity. Nevertheless, the application of combined PGPR and Si-NP decreased oxidative stress indicators (hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation) and sodium ions while increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; up to 1.9-folds), catalase (CAT; up to 1.4-folds), and peroxidase (POX; up to 2.5-folds) enzymes, and potassium ions resulting in physiological processes, root yield, and sugar yield compared to non-treated controls under combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation). It is worth mentioning that the singular application of PGPR improved root length, diameter, and yield greater than Si-NP alone and it was comparable to the combined treatment (PGPR+Si-NP). It was concluded that the combined application of PGPR and Si-NP has valuable impacts on the growth and yield of sugar beet growing under combined stressors of high soil salinity and saline water irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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22 pages, 2068 KiB  
Article
Potassium Humate and Plant Growth-Promoting Microbes Jointly Mitigate Water Deficit Stress in Soybean Cultivated in Salt-Affected Soil
by Khadiga Alharbi, Emadeldeen Rashwan, Emad Hafez, Alaa El-Dein Omara, Hossam Hussein Mohamed and Tarek Alshaal
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3016; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223016 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
Lack of high-quality irrigation water and soil salinity are two main environmental factors that affect plant development. When both stressors are combined, the soil becomes sterile and constrains plant productivity. Consequently, two field trials were designed to assess whether plant growth-promoting microbes (PGPMs; [...] Read more.
Lack of high-quality irrigation water and soil salinity are two main environmental factors that affect plant development. When both stressors are combined, the soil becomes sterile and constrains plant productivity. Consequently, two field trials were designed to assess whether plant growth-promoting microbes (PGPMs; Bradyrhizobium japonicum (USDA 110) and Trichoderma harzianum) and potassium humate (K-humate) can stimulate soybean growth, productivity, and seed quality under two different watering regimes as follows: (i) well-watered (WW), where plants were irrigated at 12-day intervals (recommended), and (ii) water stress (WS), where plants were irrigated at the 18-day intervals in salt-affected soil during 2020 and 2021 seasons. Results revealed that coupled application of PGPMs and K-humate resulted in a substantial improvement in K+ levels in the leaves compared to Na+ levels, which has a direct positive impact on an enhancement in the antioxidants defense system (CAT, POX, SOD), which caused the decline of the oxidative stress indicators (H2O2, MDA, and EL%) as well as proline content under water stress in salt-affected soil. Hence, a significant increase in root length, nodule weight, soybean relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, soluble protein, seed carbohydrate content as well as the number of pods plant−1 and seed yield was reported. In conclusion, the combined application of PGPMs and K-humate might be recommended to maximize the soybean growth and productivity under harsh growth conditions (e.g., water stress and soil salinity). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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13 pages, 2060 KiB  
Article
Water Stress, Cadmium, and Plant Genotype Modulate the Rhizosphere Microbiome of Pisum sativum L.
by Arina A. Kichko, Grigory V. Gladkov, Pavel S. Ulianich, Vera I. Safronova, Alexander G. Pinaev, Edgar A. Sekste, Andrey A. Belimov and Evgeny E. Andronov
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3013; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223013 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Drought and heavy metals seriously affect plant growth and the biodiversity of the associated rhizosphere microbiomes, which, in turn, could be involved in the adaptation of plants to these environmental stresses. Rhizosphere soil was collected from a three-factor pot experiment, where pea line [...] Read more.
Drought and heavy metals seriously affect plant growth and the biodiversity of the associated rhizosphere microbiomes, which, in turn, could be involved in the adaptation of plants to these environmental stresses. Rhizosphere soil was collected from a three-factor pot experiment, where pea line SGE and its Cd-tolerant mutant SGECdt were cultivated under both optimal and limited water conditions and treated with a toxic Cd concentration. The taxonomic structure of the prokaryotic rhizosphere microbiome was analyzed with the high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicon libraries. A permutation test demonstrated statistically significant effects of Cd and water stress but not of pea genotype on the rhizosphere microbiome structure. Phylogenetic isometric log-ratio data transformation identified the taxonomic balances that were affected by abiotic factors and pea genotypes. A small number of significant (log ratio [−3.0:+3.0]) and phylogenetically deep balances characterized water stress, while a larger number of weak (log ratio [−0.8:+0.8]) phylogenetically lower balances described the influence of the plant genotype. Stress caused by cadmium took on an intermediate position. The main conclusion of the study is that the most powerful factor affecting the rhizosphere microbiome was water stress, and the weakest factor was plant genotype since it demonstrated a very weak transformation of the taxonomic structure of rhizosphere microbiomes in terms of alpha diversity indices, beta diversity, and the log ratio values of taxonomic balances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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21 pages, 3336 KiB  
Article
Endophytes from Halotolerant Plants Aimed to Overcome Salinity and Draught
by Vladimir K. Chebotar, Elena P. Chizhevskaya, Maria E. Baganova, Oksana V. Keleinikova, Oleg S. Yuzikhin, Alexander N. Zaplatkin, Olesya V. Khonina, Roman D. Kostitsin and Nina G. Lapenko
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212992 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
The aim of our research was to study the endosphere of four halophytic plants: Salicornia europaea L., Salsola australis (R.Br.), Bassia sedoides (Pall.) and Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad. from arid and saline areas of the Stavropol Territory, Russia. In total, 28 endophyte strains [...] Read more.
The aim of our research was to study the endosphere of four halophytic plants: Salicornia europaea L., Salsola australis (R.Br.), Bassia sedoides (Pall.) and Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad. from arid and saline areas of the Stavropol Territory, Russia. In total, 28 endophyte strains were isolated from the roots and stems of these halophytic plants. Most of the isolates (23 out of 28) were identified as Bacillus sp. while others belonged to the genera Oceanobacillus, Paenibacillus, Pantoea, Alcaligenes and Myroides. Three strains of Bacillus sp. (Se5R, Se1-1R, and Se1-3S), isolated from the S. europaea were capable of growth at 55 °C and in 10% of NaCl. Strains Se1-4S, Kp20-2S, and Bs11-2S Bacillus sp. (isolated from the S. australis, K. prostrata and B. sedoides, respectively) demonstrated strong plant growth promoting activity: 85–265% over control lettuce plants and a high degree of growth suppression (59.1–81.2%) of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Rhizoctonia solani. Selected strains can be promising candidates for the development of bioinoculants to facilitate salt soil phytoremediation and be beneficial for mitigating the salt stress to the plants growing in salt-affected habitats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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14 pages, 2820 KiB  
Communication
Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Plants Associated with Arbuscular and Ectomycorrhizas Are Differentially Influenced by Drought
by Manman Jing, Zhaoyong Shi, Mengge Zhang, Menghan Zhang and Xiaohui Wang
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182429 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most important functional traits in plants which affect biogeochemical cycles. As the most widely observed plant–fungus mutualistic symbiosis, mycorrhiza plays a vital role in regulating plant growth. There are different types of mycorrhiza with various [...] Read more.
Leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most important functional traits in plants which affect biogeochemical cycles. As the most widely observed plant–fungus mutualistic symbiosis, mycorrhiza plays a vital role in regulating plant growth. There are different types of mycorrhiza with various ecological functions in nature. Drought, as a frequent environmental stress, has been paid more and more attention due to its influence on plant growth. Numerous studies have confirmed that drought affects the concentration of N and P in plants, but few studies involve different mycorrhizal types of plants. In this study, the differences of N and P between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants under different drought patterns, drought duration and cultivation conditions were explored based on a dataset by a meta-analysis. Drought stress (DS) showed negative effects on AM plant N (−7.15%) and AM plant P (−13.87%), and a positive effect on AM plant N:P ratio (+8.01%). Drought significantly increased N and the N:P ratio of ECM plants by 1.58% and 3.58%, respectively, and decreased P of ECM plants by −2.00%. Short-term drought (<30 d) reduces more N and P than long-term drought (<30 d) in AM plant species. The duration of drought did not change the N concentration of ECM plant N, while short-term drought reduced ECM plant P. The effects of N and P on DS also varied with different planting conditions and functional groups between AM and ECM plants. Therefore, mycorrhizal effects and stoichiometry of N and P play a key role in plant response to drought. So mycorrhizal effects should be considered when studying plant responses to drought stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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19 pages, 4189 KiB  
Article
Rhizobacteria Mitigate the Negative Effect of Aluminum on Pea Growth by Immobilizing the Toxicant and Modulating Root Exudation
by Andrey A. Belimov, Alexander I. Shaposhnikov, Tatiana S. Azarova, Darya S. Syrova, Anna B. Kitaeva, Pavel S. Ulyanich, Oleg S. Yuzikhin, Edgar A. Sekste, Vera I. Safronova, Margarita A. Vishnyakova, Viktor E. Tsyganov and Igor I. Tikhonovich
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182416 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
High soil acidity is one of the main unfavorable soil factors that inhibit the growth and mineral nutrition of plants. This is largely due to the toxicity of aluminum (Al), the mobility of which increases significantly in acidic soils. Symbiotic microorganisms have a [...] Read more.
High soil acidity is one of the main unfavorable soil factors that inhibit the growth and mineral nutrition of plants. This is largely due to the toxicity of aluminum (Al), the mobility of which increases significantly in acidic soils. Symbiotic microorganisms have a wide range of beneficial properties for plants, protecting them against abiotic stress factors. This report describes the mechanisms of positive effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens SPB2137 on four pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes grown in hydroponics and treated with 80 µM AlCl3. In batch culture, the bacteria produced auxins, possessed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, alkalized the medium and immobilized Al, forming biofilm-like structures and insoluble phosphates. Inoculation with Ps. fluorescens SPB2137 increased root and/or shoot biomass of Al-treated plants. The bacteria alkalized the nutrient solution and transferred Al from the solution to the residue, which contained phosphorus that was exuded by roots. As a result, the Al concentration in roots decreased, while the amount of precipitated Al correlated negatively with its concentration in the solution, positively with the solution pH and negatively with Al concentration in roots and shoots. Treatment with Al induced root exudation of organic acids, amino acids and sugars. The bacteria modulated root exudation via utilization and/or stimulation processes. The effects of Al and bacteria on plants varied depending on pea genotype, but all the effects had a positive direction and the variability was mostly quantitative. Thus, Ps. fluorescens SPB2137 improved the Al tolerance of pea due to immobilization and exclusion of toxicants from the root zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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15 pages, 2457 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Cd-Accumulation in Typha latifolia by Interaction with Pseudomonas rhodesiae GRC140 under Axenic Hydroponic Conditions
by Gisela Adelina Rolón-Cárdenas, Joana Guadalupe Martínez-Martínez, Jackeline Lizzeta Arvizu-Gómez, Ruth Elena Soria-Guerra, Ma. Catalina Alfaro-De la Torre, Fulgencio Alatorre-Cobos, Jesús Rubio-Santiago, Regina de Montserrat González-Balderas, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, José Roberto Macías-Pérez, Liseth Rubí Aldaba-Muruato and Alejandro Hernández-Morales
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111447 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
The Typha genus comprises plant species extensively studied for phytoremediation processes. Recently, Pseudomonas rhodesiae GRC140, an IAA-producing bacterium, was isolated from Typha latifolia roots. This bacterium stimulates the emergence of lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence and absence of cadmium. However, [...] Read more.
The Typha genus comprises plant species extensively studied for phytoremediation processes. Recently, Pseudomonas rhodesiae GRC140, an IAA-producing bacterium, was isolated from Typha latifolia roots. This bacterium stimulates the emergence of lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence and absence of cadmium. However, the bacterial influence on cadmium accumulation by the plant has not been determined. Moreover, the P. rhodesiae GRC140 effect in Cd phytoextraction by T. latifolia remains poorly understood. In this work, an axenic hydroponic culture of T. latifolia was established. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of cadmium stress in axenic plants and determine the effects of P. rhodesiae GRC140 and exogenous indole acetic acid (IAA) on Cd tolerance and Cd uptake by T. latifolia. Biomass production, total chlorophyll content, root electrolyte leakage, catalase activity, total glutathione, and Cd content were determined. The results showed that Cd reduces shoot biomass and increases total glutathione and Cd content in a dose-dependent manner in root tissues. Furthermore, P. rhodesiae GRC140 increased Cd translocation to the shoots, while IAA increased the Cd accumulation in plant roots, indicating that both treatments increase Cd removal by T. latifolia plants. These results indicate that axenic plants in hydroponic systems are adequate to evaluate the Cd effects in plants and suggest that T. latifolia phytoextraction abilities could be improved by P. rhodesiae GRC140 and exogenous IAA application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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Review

Jump to: Research

18 pages, 1439 KiB  
Review
Actinobacteria–Plant Interactions in Alleviating Abiotic Stress
by Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao, Karan Lohmaneeratana, Chakrit Bunyoo and Arinthip Thamchaipenet
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212976 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3429
Abstract
Abiotic stressors, such as drought, flooding, extreme temperature, soil salinity, and metal toxicity, are the most important factors limiting crop productivity. Plants use their innate biological systems to overcome these abiotic stresses caused by environmental and edaphic conditions. Microorganisms that live in and [...] Read more.
Abiotic stressors, such as drought, flooding, extreme temperature, soil salinity, and metal toxicity, are the most important factors limiting crop productivity. Plants use their innate biological systems to overcome these abiotic stresses caused by environmental and edaphic conditions. Microorganisms that live in and around plant systems have incredible metabolic abilities in mitigating abiotic stress. Recent advances in multi-omics methods, such as metagenomics, genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have helped to understand how plants interact with microbes and their environment. These methods aid in the construction of various metabolic models of microbes and plants, resulting in a better knowledge of all metabolic exchanges engaged during interactions. Actinobacteria are ubiquitous and are excellent candidates for plant growth promotion because of their prevalence in soil, the rhizosphere, their capacity to colonize plant roots and surfaces, and their ability to produce various secondary metabolites. Mechanisms by which actinobacteria overcome abiotic stress include the production of osmolytes, plant hormones, and enzymes, maintaining osmotic balance, and enhancing nutrient availability. With these characteristics, actinobacteria members are the most promising candidates as microbial inoculants. This review focuses on actinobacterial diversity in various plant regions as well as the impact of abiotic stress on plant-associated actinobacterial diversity and actinobacteria-mediated stress mitigation processes. The study discusses the role of multi-omics techniques in expanding plant–actinobacteria interactions, which aid plants in overcoming abiotic stresses and aims to encourage further investigations into what may be considered a relatively unexplored area of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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19 pages, 987 KiB  
Review
Management of Rhizosphere Microbiota and Plant Production under Drought Stress: A Comprehensive Review
by Catalina Vidal, Felipe González, Christian Santander, Rodrigo Pérez, Víctor Gallardo, Cledir Santos, Humberto Aponte, Antonieta Ruiz and Pablo Cornejo
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182437 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4262
Abstract
Drought generates a complex scenario worldwide in which agriculture should urgently be reframed from an integrative point of view. It includes the search for new water resources and the use of tolerant crops and genotypes, improved irrigation systems, and other less explored alternatives [...] Read more.
Drought generates a complex scenario worldwide in which agriculture should urgently be reframed from an integrative point of view. It includes the search for new water resources and the use of tolerant crops and genotypes, improved irrigation systems, and other less explored alternatives that are very important, such as biotechnological tools that may increase the water use efficiency. Currently, a large body of evidence highlights the role of specific strains in the main microbial rhizosphere groups (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, yeasts, and bacteria) on increasing the drought tolerance of their host plants through diverse plant growth-promoting (PGP) characteristics. With this background, it is possible to suggest that the joint use of distinct PGP microbes could produce positive interactions or additive beneficial effects on their host plants if their co-inoculation does not generate antagonistic responses. To date, such effects have only been partially analyzed by using single omics tools, such as genomics, metabolomics, or proteomics. However, there is a gap of information in the use of multi-omics approaches to detect interactions between PGP and host plants. This approach must be the next scale-jump in the study of the interaction of soil–plant–microorganism. In this review, we analyzed the constraints posed by drought in the framework of an increasing global demand for plant production, integrating the important role played by the rhizosphere biota as a PGP agent. Using multi-omics approaches to understand in depth the processes that occur in plants in the presence of microorganisms can allow us to modulate their combined use and drive it to increase crop yields, improving production processes to attend the growing global demand for food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Mutualistic Plant-Microbe Systems to Abiotic Stresses)
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