Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2023) | Viewed by 37902

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
Interests: cannabis cultivation; controlled environment agriculture; lighting; rootzone management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapidly growing trend in legalization of Cannabis sativa (cannabis) cultivation and utilization for medical and recreational purposes in regions across the planet has increased the intensity of scientific research in cannabis biology and cultivation technologies. These research activities are essential to the cannabis cultivation industry for efficiently producing cannabis with high yield and consistent quality. This Special issue of Plants provides a platform for researchers to publish their research results on cannabis biology and cultivation and, at the same time, provides easy access for all stakeholders for information exchange. This Special Issue encourages authors to submit well-designed original research papers in all aspects of cannabis biology and cultivation, such as cannabis genetics, breeding, morphogenesis, physiology and biochemistry, tissue culture and propagation, atmosphere and rootzone management, lighting, pathogen and insect pest control, plant training, postharvest, etc. Research regarding cannabis grown in all types of cultivation environments (e.g., outdoors, greenhouse, indoors) is welcome; however, only papers involving drug-type cannabis (including hemp cultivated for medicinal or recreational purposes) will be included in this Issue.

Dr. Youbin Zheng
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biocontrol
  • biostimulant
  • breeding
  • Cannabis sativa
  • cannabis
  • cannabinoids
  • environmental control
  • fertigation
  • flavonoids
  • genetics
  • growing media
  • insect pest
  • lighting
  • light spectrum
  • light intensity
  • morphogenesis
  • morphology
  • tissue culture
  • pathogens
  • plant nutrition
  • photoperiod
  • plant training
  • postharvest
  • rootzone management
  • terpenes
  • terpenoids
  • VPD

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

24 pages, 10280 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Propagation Techniques for Cannabis sativa L. Cultivation: A Comparative Analysis of Soilless Methods and Aeroponic Parameters
by Matthew Weingarten, Neil Mattson and Heather Grab
Plants 2024, 13(9), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13091256 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Given the rapid growth of the Cannabis industry, developing practices for producing young plants with limited genetic variation and efficient growth is crucial to achieving reliable and successful cultivation results. This study presents a multi-faceted experiment series analyzing propagation techniques for evaluating proficiency [...] Read more.
Given the rapid growth of the Cannabis industry, developing practices for producing young plants with limited genetic variation and efficient growth is crucial to achieving reliable and successful cultivation results. This study presents a multi-faceted experiment series analyzing propagation techniques for evaluating proficiency in the growth and development of Cannabis vegetative cuttings. This research encompasses various (1) soilless propagation methods including aeroponics, horticultural (phenolic) foam, and rockwool; (2) transplant timings; (3) aeroponic spray intervals; and (4) aeroponic reservoir nutrient concentrations, to elucidate their impact on rooting and growth parameters amongst two Cannabis cultivars. Aeroponics was as effective as, and in some cases more effective than, soilless propagation media for root development and plant growth. In aeroponic systems, continuous spray intervals, compared to intermittent, result in a better promotion of root initiation and plant growth. Moreover, raised nutrient concentrations in aeroponic propagation demonstrated greater rooting and growth. The effects of experimental treatment were dependent on the cultivar and sampling day. These findings offer valuable insights into how various propagation techniques and growth parameters can be tailored to enhance the production of vegetative cuttings. These results hold critical implications for cultivators intending to achieve premium harvests through efficient propagule methods and optimization strategies in the competitive Cannabis industry. Ultimately, our findings suggest that aeroponic propagation, compared to alternative soilless methods, is a rapid and efficient process for cultivating vegetative cuttings of Cannabis and offers sustainable advantages in resource conservation and preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 5307 KiB  
Article
The Efficiency of CBD Production Using Grafted Cannabis sativa L. Plants Is Highly Dependent on the Type of Rootstock: A Study
by Luka Bitežnik, Roman Štukelj and Marko Flajšman
Plants 2024, 13(8), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13081117 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 779
Abstract
The global cannabis market is continuously expanding and as a result, the cannabis industry demands new and improved agronomic cultivation practices to increase production efficiency of cannabidiol (CBD), which is valued for its therapeutic benefits. This study investigates the influence of three rootstock [...] Read more.
The global cannabis market is continuously expanding and as a result, the cannabis industry demands new and improved agronomic cultivation practices to increase production efficiency of cannabidiol (CBD), which is valued for its therapeutic benefits. This study investigates the influence of three rootstock types on the survival rate, morphological parameters, and biochemical composition of cannabis: potentially dwarfing rootstocks (PDR), potentially vigorous rootstocks (PVR), and seedlings-as-rootstocks (SAR). Rootstocks were used for grafting two scion genotypes: ‘ScionII’ = chemotype II of industrial hemp, and ‘ScionIII’ = chemotype III of high CBD accumulating variety. Contrary to expectations, PVR and SAR did not outperform PDR on most of the measured variables. SAR showed the highest survival rate of the grafted cannabis plants (40–70%). The rootstock type had a statistically significant influence only on the bud compactness index in ‘ScionII’, with PDR being particularly noticeable. A comparative analysis of the ‘rootstock/scion’ combinations with their controls (non-grafted scions) revealed grafting’s substantial improvement in most traits. Specifically, PDR increased CBD content by 27% in ‘ScionIII’, inflorescence yield and CBD yield per plant increased by 71% and 84%, respectively, when SAR was used in ‘ScionII’. SAR showed to be the most effective rootstock type for CBD production. Our findings suggest grafting as a promising technique for optimizing cannabis’s agronomic and medicinal potential, highlighting the necessity for further research on its underlying mechanisms to refine production efficiency and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4762 KiB  
Article
Longer Photoperiod Substantially Increases Indoor-Grown Cannabis’ Yield and Quality: A Study of Two High-THC Cultivars Grown under 12 h vs. 13 h Days
by Ashleigh Ahrens, David Llewellyn and Youbin Zheng
Plants 2024, 13(3), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13030433 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 6823
Abstract
Indoor-grown Cannabis sativa is commonly transitioned to a 12 h daily photoperiod to promote flowering. However, our previous research has shown that some indoor-grown cannabis cultivars can initiate strong flowering responses under daily photoperiods longer than 12 h. Since longer photoperiods inherently provide [...] Read more.
Indoor-grown Cannabis sativa is commonly transitioned to a 12 h daily photoperiod to promote flowering. However, our previous research has shown that some indoor-grown cannabis cultivars can initiate strong flowering responses under daily photoperiods longer than 12 h. Since longer photoperiods inherently provide higher daily light integrals (DLIs), they may also increase growth and yield. To test this hypothesis, two THC-dominant cannabis cultivars, ‘Incredible Milk’ (IM) and ‘Gorilla Glue’ (GG), were grown to commercial maturity at a canopy level PPFD of 540 µmol·m−2·s−1 from white LEDS under 12 h or 13 h daily photoperiods, resulting in DLIs of 23.8 and 25.7 mol·m−2·d−1, respectively. Both treatments were harvested when the plants in the 12 h treatment reached maturity according to established commercial protocols. There was no delay in flowering initiation time in GG, but flowering initiation in IM was delayed by about 1.5 d under 13 h. Stigma browning and trichome ambering also occurred earlier and progressed faster in the 12 h treatment in both cultivars. The vegetative growth of IM plants in the 13 h treatment was greater and more robust. The inflorescence yields were strikingly higher in the 13 h vs. 12 h treatment, i.e., 1.35 times and 1.50 times higher in IM and GG, respectively, which is 4 to 6 times higher than the relative increase in DLIs. The inflorescence concentrations of major cannabinoids in the 13 h treatment were either higher or not different from the 12 h treatment in both cultivars. These results suggest that there may be substantial commercial benefits for using photoperiods longer than 12 h for increasing inflorescence yields without decreasing cannabinoid concentrations in some cannabis cultivars grown in indoor environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1329 KiB  
Communication
Enhancing Protoplast Isolation and Early Cell Division from Cannabis sativa Callus Cultures via Phenylpropanoid Inhibition
by Adrian S. Monthony and Andrew Maxwell P. Jones
Plants 2024, 13(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13010130 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1832
Abstract
De novo regeneration of Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) using tissue culture techniques remains unreliable and infrequent. Conventional methods for the regeneration and transformation of cannabis have not achieved the reliability and replicability that need to be integrated into research and breeding programs. Protoplast [...] Read more.
De novo regeneration of Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) using tissue culture techniques remains unreliable and infrequent. Conventional methods for the regeneration and transformation of cannabis have not achieved the reliability and replicability that need to be integrated into research and breeding programs. Protoplast systems are effective for gene expression studies and transformation and genome-editing technologies and open the possibility of somatic hybridization to create interspecific hybrids. To date, leaf-derived protoplasts have been isolated for transient gene expression studies, but protoplast-to-plant regeneration has not been reported. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of using a callus culture system as an abundant tissue source for protoplast isolation and lays the groundwork for a protoplast-to-plant regeneration system. Using hypocotyl-derived callus cultures, which are known to have relatively greater regenerative potential, the efficacy of protoplast isolation and initial cell division were assessed. In this study, the effect of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), in callus culture media and the effect of subculture frequency on protoplast yield were assessed. This study found that inclusion of AIP at 1 mM resulted in a 334% increase in protoplast yield compared with AIP-free medium, representing the first known use of AIP in cannabis tissue culture. Inclusion of AIP led to a 28% decrease in total soluble phenolics and 52% decrease in tissue browning compared with the control medium. Lastly, a two-phase culture system for protoplast regeneration was tested. At a concentration of 2.0 × 105 protoplasts per mL, cell wall reconstitution and cell division were observed, providing one of the first know reports of cell division from cannabis protoplasts and setting the stage for the future development of a protoplast-to-plant regeneration system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 945 KiB  
Communication
Naturally Occurring Triploidy in Cannabis
by Richard Philbrook, Marzieh Jafari, Sydney Gerstenberg, Krista L. Say, Jeremy Warren and Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones
Plants 2023, 12(23), 3927; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12233927 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Polyploidy is a significant evolutionary process in plants that involves the duplication of genomic content and has been recognized as a key mechanism driving plant diversification and adaptation. In natural populations, polyploids frequently arise from unreduced gametes, which subsequently fuse with reduced or [...] Read more.
Polyploidy is a significant evolutionary process in plants that involves the duplication of genomic content and has been recognized as a key mechanism driving plant diversification and adaptation. In natural populations, polyploids frequently arise from unreduced gametes, which subsequently fuse with reduced or unreduced gametes, resulting in triploid or tetraploid offspring, respectively. Cannabis sativa L. is a diploid species, but recent work using artificially induced polyploidy has demonstrated its potential advantages in an agricultural setting. Further, recent work has identified that some elite clonal cultivars, vis. Mac1, are triploid, with no indication that they were artificially produced. The current study was conducted to determine if polyploidy is a naturally occurring phenomenon in cannabis and to estimate the frequency of this phenomenon across populations. To do this, the presence of natural triploid individuals was evaluated in 13 seedling populations of cannabis using a flow cytometry analysis. Among the examined populations, natural triploids were identified in 10 groups with an average frequency of approximately 0.5%. The highest frequency of natural triploids was observed in a self-pollinated population at 2.3%. This research demonstrates that polyploidy is a naturally occurring event in cannabis and triploids are present at an average of approximately 0.5%, or 1 in 200 plants. These data shed light on the natural variation in ploidy within cannabis populations and contribute valuable insights to the understanding of cannabis genetics and breeding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2444 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Phenotypic Characterization of Diverse Drug-Type Cannabis Varieties from the Canadian Legal Market
by Éliana Lapierre, Maxime de Ronne, Rosemarie Boulanger and Davoud Torkamaneh
Plants 2023, 12(21), 3756; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12213756 - 2 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) stands as a historically significant and culturally important plant, embodying economic, social, and medicinal relevance for human societies. However, years of prohibition and stigmatization have hindered the cannabis research community, which is hugely undersized and suffers from a [...] Read more.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) stands as a historically significant and culturally important plant, embodying economic, social, and medicinal relevance for human societies. However, years of prohibition and stigmatization have hindered the cannabis research community, which is hugely undersized and suffers from a scarcity of understanding of cannabis genetics and how key traits are expressed or inherited. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of 176 drug-type cannabis accessions, representative of Canada’s legal market. We assessed germination methods, evaluated various traits including agronomic, morphological, and cannabinoid profiles, and uncovered significant variation within this population. Notably, the yield displayed a negative correlation with maturity-related traits but a positive correlation with the fresh biomass. Additionally, the potential THC content showed a positive correlation with maturity-related traits but a negative correlation with the yield. Significant differences were observed between the plants derived from regular female seeds and feminized seeds, as well as between the plants derived from cuttings and seeds for different traits. This study advances our understanding of cannabis cultivation, offering insights into germination practices, agronomic traits, morphological characteristics, and biochemical diversity. These findings establish a foundation for precise breeding and cultivar development, enhancing cannabis’s potential in the legal market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2667 KiB  
Article
Cosexuality Reduces Pollen Production and Fitness in Cannabis sativa L.
by Sydney B. Wizenberg, Jillian Muir-Guarnaccia and Lesley G. Campbell
Plants 2023, 12(21), 3731; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12213731 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Cannabis sativa L. is cultivated globally for its cannabinoid-dense inflorescences. Commercial preference for sinsemilla has led to the development of methods for producing feminized seeds through cross-pollination of cosexual (masculinized) female plants. Although the induction of cosexuality in Cannabis plants is common, to [...] Read more.
Cannabis sativa L. is cultivated globally for its cannabinoid-dense inflorescences. Commercial preference for sinsemilla has led to the development of methods for producing feminized seeds through cross-pollination of cosexual (masculinized) female plants. Although the induction of cosexuality in Cannabis plants is common, to date, no work has empirically tested how masculinization of female Cannabis plants impacts male flowering, pollen production, pollen fitness, and related life-history trade-offs. Here, we cultivated a population of Cannabis plants (CFX-2) and explored how the route to cosexuality (drought vs. chemical induction) impacted flowering phenology, pollen production, and pollen fitness, relative to unsexual male plants. Unisexual males flowered earlier and longer than cosexual plants and produced 223% more total pollen (F2,28 = 74.41, p < 0.001), but per-flower pollen production did not differ across reproductive phenotypes (F2,21 = 0.887, p = 0.427). Pollen viability was 200% higher in unisexual males and drought-induced cosexuals (F2,36 = 189.70, p < 0.001). Pollen non-abortion rates only differed in a marginally significant way across reproductive phenotypes (F2,36 = 3.00, p = 0.06). Here, we demonstrate that masculinization of female plants impacts whole-plant pollen production and pollen fitness in Cannabis sativa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 19271 KiB  
Article
Morphological Characterization of Cannabis sativa L. Throughout Its Complete Life Cycle
by Mohsen Hesami, Marco Pepe and Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones
Plants 2023, 12(20), 3646; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12203646 - 22 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7579
Abstract
This study extensively characterizes the morphological characteristics, including the leaf morphology, plant structure, flower development, and trichome features throughout the entire life cycle of Cannabis sativa L. cv. White Widow. The developmental responses to photoperiodic variations were investigated from germination to mature plant [...] Read more.
This study extensively characterizes the morphological characteristics, including the leaf morphology, plant structure, flower development, and trichome features throughout the entire life cycle of Cannabis sativa L. cv. White Widow. The developmental responses to photoperiodic variations were investigated from germination to mature plant senescence. The leaf morphology showed a progression of complexity, beginning with serrations in the 1st true leaves, until the emergence of nine leaflets in the 6th true leaves, followed by a distinct shift to eight, then seven leaflets with the 14th and 15th true leaves, respectively. Thereafter, the leaf complexity decreased, culminating in the emergence of a single leaflet from the 25th node. The leaf area peaked with the 12th leaves, which coincided with a change from opposite to alternate phyllotaxy. The stipule development at nodes 5 and 6 signified the vegetative phase, followed by bract and solitary flower development emerging in nodes 7–12, signifying the reproductive phase. The subsequent induction of short-day photoperiod triggered the formation of apical inflorescence. Mature flowers displayed abundant glandular trichomes on perigonal bracts, with stigma color changing from whitish-yellow to reddish-brown. A pronounced increase in trichome density was evident, particularly on the abaxial bract surface, following the onset of flowering. The trichomes exhibited simultaneous growth in stalk length and glandular head diameter and pronounced shifts in color. Hermaphroditism occurred well after the general harvest date. This comprehensive study documents the intricate photoperiod-driven morphological changes throughout the complete lifecycle of Cannabis sativa L. cv. White Widow. The developmental responses characterized provide valuable insights for industrial and research applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1657 KiB  
Article
A Novel Method for Stimulating Cannabis sativa L. Male Flowers from Female Plants
by Luke C. Owen, David H. Suchoff and Hsuan Chen
Plants 2023, 12(19), 3371; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12193371 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Female hemp plants are desired in floral hemp operations due to their higher cannabinoid contents. To produce feminized seeds, a critical step of inducing fertile male flowers on female plants is performed. In feminized seed production, freshly mixed STS (silver thiosulfate + sodium [...] Read more.
Female hemp plants are desired in floral hemp operations due to their higher cannabinoid contents. To produce feminized seeds, a critical step of inducing fertile male flowers on female plants is performed. In feminized seed production, freshly mixed STS (silver thiosulfate + sodium thiosulfate) is applied to female plants as an ethylene inhibitor to induce male flowers. However, the short-shelf stability of the STS buffer can cause difficulty in the application and inconsistent results. Alternative methods with improved accessibility and stable buffers will be beneficial for the hemp industry and hemp breeders. A commercially available floriculture product, Chrysal ALESCO®, contains silver nitrate, the same active ingredient as STS but with increased shelf stability. This study compares Chrysal ALESCO® to the traditional STS standard methods for male flower induction on female plants and their pollen quality. The two treatments were applied to six female hemp accessions with three replicates investigated, and the male flower counts and pollen quality were compared. No statistically significant difference was discovered in their male flower counts; the STS-treated plant produced an average of 478.18 male flowers, and the Chrysal ALESCO®-treated plant produced an average of 498.24 male flowers per plant. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and acetocarmine stains were used to investigate the pollen quality (non-aborted rate) of two chosen genotypes. FDA-stained pollen of Chrysal ALESCO® showed a significantly higher non-aborted rate than the pollen of traditional STS-treated plants (p < 0.001); however, only a marginally higher non-aborted rate was discovered by acetocarmine staining (p = 0.0892). In summary, Chrysal ALESCO® performed equally to traditional STS treatment at male flower counts and better or equally in pollen quality. With better shelf stability and easy application, ALESCO® can be a viable alternative option for stimulating male flowers on female hemp plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2568 KiB  
Article
Is Twelve Hours Really the Optimum Photoperiod for Promoting Flowering in Indoor-Grown Cultivars of Cannabis sativa?
by Ashleigh Ahrens, David Llewellyn and Youbin Zheng
Plants 2023, 12(14), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142605 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4883
Abstract
Cannabis sativa (“cannabis” hereafter) is a valuable recent addition to Canada’s economy with the legalization for recreational use in 2018. The vast majority of indoor cannabis cultivators use a 12-h light/12-h dark photoperiod to promote flowering. To test the hypothesis that robust flowering [...] Read more.
Cannabis sativa (“cannabis” hereafter) is a valuable recent addition to Canada’s economy with the legalization for recreational use in 2018. The vast majority of indoor cannabis cultivators use a 12-h light/12-h dark photoperiod to promote flowering. To test the hypothesis that robust flowering initiation responses can be promoted in indoor-grown cannabis cultivars under longer photoperiods, clones of ten drug-type cannabis cultivars were grown under six photoperiod treatments. All treatments were based on a standard 24-h day and included 12 h, 12.5 h, 13 h, 13.5 h, 14 h, and 15 h of light. The plants were grown in a growth chamber for 3 to 4 weeks, receiving an approximate light intensity of 360 µmol·m−2·s−1 from white LEDs. Flowering initiation, defined as the appearance of ≥3 pairs of stigmas at the apex of the primary shoot, occurred in all cultivars under all photoperiod treatments up to 14 h. Delays in flowering initiation time under 14 h vs. 12 h ranged from no delay to approximately 4 days, depending on the cultivar. Some cultivars also initiated flowering under 15 h, but floral tissues did not further develop beyond the initiation phase. Harvest metrics of some cultivars responded quadratically with increasing photoperiod, with ideal levels of key flowering parameters varying between 12 h and 13 h. These results suggest there is potential to increase yield in some indoor-grown cannabis cultivars by using longer than 12-h photoperiods during the flowering stage of production. This is attributed to the inherently higher daily light integrals. Indoor cannabis growers should investigate the photoperiod responses of their individual cultivars to determine the optimal photoperiod for producing floral biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

41 pages, 16226 KiB  
Review
Integrated Management of Pathogens and Microbes in Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabis) under Greenhouse Conditions
by Liam Buirs and Zamir K. Punja
Plants 2024, 13(6), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13060786 - 10 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2471
Abstract
The increased cultivation of high THC-containing Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis), particularly in greenhouses, has resulted in a greater incidence of diseases and molds that can negatively affect the growth and quality of the crop. Among them, the most important diseases are root rots [...] Read more.
The increased cultivation of high THC-containing Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis), particularly in greenhouses, has resulted in a greater incidence of diseases and molds that can negatively affect the growth and quality of the crop. Among them, the most important diseases are root rots (Fusarium and Pythium spp.), bud rot (Botrytis cinerea), powdery mildew (Golovinomyces ambrosiae), cannabis stunt disease (caused by hop latent viroid), and a range of microbes that reduce post-harvest quality. An integrated management approach to reduce the impact of these diseases/microbes requires combining different approaches that target the reproduction, spread, and survival of the associated pathogens, many of which can occur on the same plant simultaneously. These approaches will be discussed in the context of developing an integrated plan to manage the important pathogens of greenhouse-grown cannabis at different stages of plant development. These stages include the maintenance of stock plants, propagation through cuttings, vegetative growth of plants, and flowering. The cultivation of cannabis genotypes with tolerance or resistance to various pathogens is a very important approach, as well as the maintenance of pathogen-free stock plants. When combined with cultural approaches (sanitation, management of irrigation, and monitoring for diseases) and environmental approaches (greenhouse climate modification), a significant reduction in pathogen development and spread can be achieved. The use of preventive applications of microbial biological control agents and reduced-risk biorational products can also reduce disease development at all stages of production in jurisdictions where they are registered for use. The combined use of promising strategies for integrated disease management in cannabis plants during greenhouse production will be reviewed. Future areas for research are identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 803 KiB  
Review
Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Potential Pathogen Resistance in Cannabis sativa
by Tiziana M. Sirangelo, Richard A. Ludlow and Natasha D. Spadafora
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152764 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) is one of the earliest cultivated crops, valued for producing a broad spectrum of compounds used in medicinal products and being a source of food and fibre. Despite the availability of its genome sequences, few studies explore the [...] Read more.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) is one of the earliest cultivated crops, valued for producing a broad spectrum of compounds used in medicinal products and being a source of food and fibre. Despite the availability of its genome sequences, few studies explore the molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen defense, and the underlying biological pathways are poorly defined in places. Here, we provide an overview of Cannabis defence responses against common pathogens, such as Golovinomyces spp., Fusarium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Pythium spp. For each of these pathogens, after a summary of their characteristics and symptoms, we explore studies identifying genes involved in Cannabis resistance mechanisms. Many studies focus on the potential involvement of disease-resistance genes, while others refer to other plants however whose results may be of use for Cannabis research. Omics investigations allowing the identification of candidate defence genes are highlighted, and genome editing approaches to generate resistant Cannabis species based on CRISPR/Cas9 technology are discussed. According to the emerging results, a potential defence model including both immune and defence mechanisms in Cannabis plant–pathogen interactions is finally proposed. To our knowledge, this is the first review of the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen resistance in Cannabis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: Advances in Biology and Cultivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop