Special Issue "Contemporary Natural Philosophy and Philosophies"
A special issue of Philosophies (ISSN 2409-9287).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2019
Prof. Dr. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic
1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
2 School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Computer Science Laboratory, Mälardalen University, Sweden
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Interests: computing paradigms; computational mechanisms of cognition; philosophy of science; epistemology of science; computing and philosophy; ethics of computing; information ethics; roboethics and engineering ethics; sustainability ethics
Prof. Dr. Marcin J. Schroeder
Akita International University, 193-2 Okutsubakidai, Aza Tsubakigawa, Yuwa, 010-1211 Akita, Japan
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Interests: philosophy of information and computation; philosophy and history of science and logic; foundations of physics and mathematics; mathematical formalization of scientific theories
This Special Issue "Contemporary Natural Philosophy and Philosophies" addresses necessity for the revival of Natural Philosophy and aims at contributing in building the ground for this Phoenix’s rebirth. It is an extended synthesis, bringing new elements into classical discipline of Newton and Leibniz, building the idea of unity of nature and human as its integral part, on various levels of organization, and from different perspectives of sciences, humanities and liberal arts from their cultural contexts, including technology. More information is given in the Editorial.
Prof. Dr. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic
Prof. Dr. Marcin J. Schroeder
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Philosophies is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
What Has Zen to Do with Mathematics?
Hilbert’s Road to the Infinity and the Philosophy of Nothingness
University of Bologna
“Mathematics is the science of the infinite, its goal the symbolic comprehension of the infinite with human, that is finite, means.” Along this line, Hermann Weyl (1932) contrasted the desire and thought for making the infinite accessible through finite processes, underlying any theoretical investigation of reality, with the religious feeling for the infinite, which is peculiar to the Orient: “a quiet unquestioning acceptance of the infinite” that remains merely an abstract consciousness, “indi↵erent to the concrete manifold of reality.” And yet, however divergent a mathematical mind and a religious attitude may appear, they have a common share in the rigour of method. Struggling to make sense of the infinity of real numbers mathematicians come to see the meaningfulness of the void. Investigating the structure of self-awareness, the Japanese philosopher Nishida Kitar¯o comes to see a “simply infinite system” as a world mapping itself into itself. Thus, Dedekind’s reflection on mathematics can suggest a perspective where infinity and emptiness look one and the same.
Hylomorphism Extended: Dynamical Forms and Minds
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Physical objects are compounds of matter and form, as stated by Aristotle in his hylomorphism theory. The concept of “form” in this theory refers to physical structures or organizational structures. However, mental processes are not of this kind, they do not change physical organization of atoms, but change their states. To cover all natural processes hylomorphism should acknowledge differences between three kinds of forms: form as physical structure, form as function resulting from organization and interactions between constituent parts, and dynamic form as state transitions that change functions of structures. Dynamical forms, patterns of energy activation that change functions without changing material structures, are the key to understand minds of rational animals. Dynamic forms change information without changing the structure of matter.
The Coming Emptiness: The Meaning of the Emptiness of the Universe in Natural Philosophy
The cosmological relevance of emptiness—that is, space without bodies—is not yet sufficiently appreciated in natural philosophy. This paper addresses two aspects of cosmic emptiness from the perspective of natural philosophy: the distances to the stars in the closer cosmic environment and the expansion of space as a result of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Both aspects will be discussed from both a historical and a systematic perspective. Emptiness can be interpreted as “coming” in a two-fold sense: Whereas in the past knowledge of emptiness as it were came to human beings, in the future it is coming insofar as its relevance in the cosmos will increase.
The longer and more closely emptiness was studied since the beginning of modernity, the larger became the spaces over which it was found to extend. From a systematic perspective, I will show with regard to the closer cosmic environment that the earth may be separated from the perhaps habitable planets of other stars by an emptiness that is inimical to life and cannot be traversed by humans. This assumption is a result of the discussion of the constraints and possibilities of interstellar space travel as defined by the known natural laws and technical means. With the accelerated expansion of the universe, the distances to other galaxies (outside of the so-called local group) are increasing. According to the current standard model of cosmology and assuming that the acceleration will remain constant, in the distant future this expansion will lead first to a substantial change in the epistemic conditions of cosmological knowledge and finally to the completion of the cosmic emptiness and of its relevance, respectively. Imagining the postulated completely empty last state leads human thought to the very limits of what is conceivable.Virtual Space - A Transdisciplinary Stage For New Natural Philosophy
Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden
This paper presents virtual space as a conceptual tool for natural philosophy. It can facilitate conceptualisation of the process of recreating natural philosophy as a synthesis of science and philosophy, and enable adding cultural aspects coming from arts and other domains of knowledge broadly construed. Here the contemporary phenomenon of virtual reality with its virtual spaces provides a platform for conceptualising natural philosophy through multidisciplinarity. In order to support this idea, the paper investigates an understanding of virtuality through a combination of natural sciences, cognitive science, philosophy, and art. The aim is to show how these different perspectives come together in a holistic view of virtual space. Space here stands for the structural properties of the relationships between objects and events. The discussion in this paper will reveal a synthetic rather than analytic view, where virtual space is seen as a framework for experiences and agreements, rather than existing a priori. A connection between natural philosophy and virtual space is established through the role of the observer, which is central in natural philosophy as well as in the concept of virtual space. The argument leads to three models of the understanding of virtual space. The first model is an explanation of virtual space as a hybrid that has emerged from both culture (arts) and nature (sciences). The second model puts the observer in the centre and connects the observer/user/viewer/actor to the physical-virtual space through an embodied interaction. The third model proposes virtual space as a node for transdisciplinary interchange, through the metaphor of stage, borrowed from terminology of theatre. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it proposes a model for the way contemporary natural philosophy can inform the understanding of virtuality that is taking increasing part of our everyday lives as well as knowledge production. Second, it presents virtual space as a platform for transdisciplinary work, exposing its underlying processes from both theoretical and practical point of view.
Discursive Space and Its Consequences for Understanding Knowledge and Information
Institute of Culture, Jagiellonian University, Poland, Krakow; [email protected]
The paper develops the idea of discursive space by the describing the manner of existence of this space and the world of facts. The ontology of discursive space is based on the idea of discourse by Foucault. Discourse being a language phenomenon is a way of existence of the knowledge. The discursive space is a representation of knowledge and can be interpreted as the system of acquiring of the knowledge. This space is connected with the world of facts by the relationship of the supervenience, which can be interpreted as a flow of knowledge. At the same time the way of the existence of the world of facts (world of affairs) assumes that it covers the whole of phenomena and processes, and therefore necessarily also the discursive space. Hence this space is not a separate system, but a system that emerges from the world in order to allow the gathering of the specific knowledge about it. Treating the discursive space as one of the possible cognitive systems, one can imagine other systems of knowledge that emerge from the world (the whole), as parts subordinated to particular goals (the use of knowledge), which can have a multilevel character. The flow of knowledge on the border of such a system and the whole of it can be interpreted as information. The paper tries to justify this possibility, which could lead to a general model.Temporality; Naturalized