# The Digital and the Real Universe. Foundations of Natural Philosophy and Computational Physics

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Complexity of Quantum and Real Computing

^{−5}s. After the separation of matter and radiation in nearly 300,000 years, the universe became transparent. Gravitation began to form material structures of galaxies, Black Holes, and the first generations of stars. Chemical elements and molecular compounds were generated. Under appropriate planetary conditions, the evolution of life had developed. The evolution of quantum, molecular, and DNA-systems is nowadays a model of quantum, molecular, and DNA-computing.

## 3. Is the Universe Digital?

## 4. Is the Universe Computable?

If ${T}_{2}+\tau $ can prove ${T}_{1}$, this proof is called a reversal. If ${T}_{1}$ proves $\tau $ and ${T}_{2}+\tau $ is a reversal, then ${T}_{1}$ and $\tau $ are said to be equivalent over ${T}_{2}$.

## 5. Computational Complexity of the Universe

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- Definitely cannot be reduced to constructive procedures; and
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- definitely influence physical experiments,

## 6. Conclusions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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Mainzer, K. The Digital and the Real Universe. Foundations of Natural Philosophy and Computational Physics. *Philosophies* **2019**, *4*, 3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4010003

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Mainzer K. The Digital and the Real Universe. Foundations of Natural Philosophy and Computational Physics. *Philosophies*. 2019; 4(1):3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4010003

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Mainzer, Klaus. 2019. "The Digital and the Real Universe. Foundations of Natural Philosophy and Computational Physics" *Philosophies* 4, no. 1: 3.
https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4010003