Special Issue "Competence Training for Pharmacy"

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Jeffrey Atkinson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy, 12 rue de Versigny, Villers 54600, France
Interests: pharmacy education and training; bibliometrics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to invite you to contribute to a Special issue on “Competence Training for Pharmacy” to be published in the online journal pharmacy (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/pharmacy). Although pharmacy is a relatively new journal, it is already indexed by the “Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)”, the core collection of Web of Science.
This Special issue will include contributions from researchers from all over the world dealing with a variety of issues such as:

  • The philosophy behind the production and use of competence frameworks
  • The production of consensual competence frameworks
  • Experience with the use of competence frameworks in pharmacy education and training
  • Future developments in competence training for pharmacy students

Contributions can be in the form of reviews or research articles and should be 10–20 pages (A4) long, with 10-20 bibliographic references and several figures (graphs, flow-charts...). They will be reviewed by the editorial board and peer reviewed in the usual fashion. The whole collection will be published in book form.

Jeffrey Atkinson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • competence
  • pharmacy
  • healthcare
  • professional practice
  • education
  • policy

Published Papers (14 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Competence-Based Pharmacy Education in the University of Helsinki
Pharmacy 2017, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5020029 - 01 Jun 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2599
Abstract
In order to meet the expectations to act as an expert in the health care profession, it is of utmost importance that pharmacy education creates knowledge and skills needed in today’s working life. Thus, the planning of the curriculum should be based on [...] Read more.
In order to meet the expectations to act as an expert in the health care profession, it is of utmost importance that pharmacy education creates knowledge and skills needed in today’s working life. Thus, the planning of the curriculum should be based on relevant and up-to-date learning outcomes. In the University of Helsinki, a university wide curriculum reform called ‘the Big Wheel’ was launched in 2015. After the reform, the basic degrees of the university are two-cycle (Bachelor–Master) and competence-based, where the learning outcomes form a solid basis for the curriculum goals and implementation. In the Faculty of Pharmacy, this curriculum reform was conducted in two phases during 2012–2016. The construction of the curriculum was based on the most relevant learning outcomes concerning working life via high quality first (Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy) and second (Master of Science in Pharmacy) cycle degree programs. The reform was kicked off by interviewing all the relevant stakeholders: students, teachers, and pharmacists/experts in all the working life sectors of pharmacy. Based on these interviews, the intended learning outcomes of the Pharmacy degree programs were defined including both subject/contents-related and generic skills. The curriculum design was based on the principles of constructive alignment and new structures and methods were applied in order to foster the implementation of the learning outcomes. During the process, it became evident that a competence-based curriculum can be created only in close co-operation with the stakeholders, including teachers and students. Well-structured and facilitated co-operation amongst the teachers enabled the development of many new and innovative teaching practices. The European Union funded PHAR-QA project provided, at the same time, a highly relevant framework to compare the curriculum development in Helsinki against Europe-wide definitions of competences and learning outcomes in pharmacy education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Parametric and Non-Parametric Methods Applied to a Likert Scale
Pharmacy 2017, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5020026 - 10 May 2017
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4686
Abstract
A trenchant and passionate dispute over the use of parametric versus non-parametric methods for the analysis of Likert scale ordinal data has raged for the past eight decades. The answer is not a simple “yes” or “no” but is related to hypotheses, objectives, [...] Read more.
A trenchant and passionate dispute over the use of parametric versus non-parametric methods for the analysis of Likert scale ordinal data has raged for the past eight decades. The answer is not a simple “yes” or “no” but is related to hypotheses, objectives, risks, and paradigms. In this paper, we took a pragmatic approach. We applied both types of methods to the analysis of actual Likert data on responses from different professional subgroups of European pharmacists regarding competencies for practice. Results obtained show that with “large” (>15) numbers of responses and similar (but clearly not normal) distributions from different subgroups, parametric and non-parametric analyses give in almost all cases the same significant or non-significant results for inter-subgroup comparisons. Parametric methods were more discriminant in the cases of non-similar conclusions. Considering that the largest differences in opinions occurred in the upper part of the 4-point Likert scale (ranks 3 “very important” and 4 “essential”), a “score analysis” based on this part of the data was undertaken. This transformation of the ordinal Likert data into binary scores produced a graphical representation that was visually easier to understand as differences were accentuated. In conclusion, in this case of Likert ordinal data with high response rates, restraining the analysis to non-parametric methods leads to a loss of information. The addition of parametric methods, graphical analysis, analysis of subsets, and transformation of data leads to more in-depth analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Are We Ready to Implement Competence-Based Teaching in Pharmacy Education in Poland?
Pharmacy 2017, 5(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5020025 - 09 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Pharmacists in Poland are responsible for the dispensing and quality control of pharmaceuticals. The education process in pharmacy is regulated and monitored at the national level. Pharmacy education at Jagiellonian University is organized in a traditional way based on input and content teaching. [...] Read more.
Pharmacists in Poland are responsible for the dispensing and quality control of pharmaceuticals. The education process in pharmacy is regulated and monitored at the national level. Pharmacy education at Jagiellonian University is organized in a traditional way based on input and content teaching. The aim of the study was to determinate whether the Jagiellonian University curriculum in the Pharmacy program meets the criteria of the European Competence Framework. The mapping of the intended curriculum was done by four academic teachers. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the distribution of the European Competence Framework among a group of courses and study years was done. We observed that most of the personal competencies are offered to students in their senior years, while the patient care competencies are distributed equally during the cycle of the study, and only some of them are overrepresented at the senior years. We need a legislation change at the national level as well as organizational and mental change at the university level to move from learning outcome-based pharmacy education to competence-based. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Curriculum Mapping of the Master’s Program in Pharmacy in Slovenia with the PHAR-QA Competency Framework
Pharmacy 2017, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5020024 - 02 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3110
Abstract
This article presents the results of mapping the Slovenian pharmacy curriculum to evaluate the adequacy of the recently developed and validated European Pharmacy Competences Framework (EPCF). The mapping was carried out and evaluated progressively by seven members of the teaching staff at the [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of mapping the Slovenian pharmacy curriculum to evaluate the adequacy of the recently developed and validated European Pharmacy Competences Framework (EPCF). The mapping was carried out and evaluated progressively by seven members of the teaching staff at the University of Ljubljana’s Faculty of Pharmacy. Consensus was achieved by using a two-round modified Delphi technique to evaluate the coverage of competences in the current curriculum. The preliminary results of the curriculum mapping showed that all of the competences as defined by the EPCF are covered in Ljubljana’s academic program. However, because most EPCF competences cover healthcare-oriented pharmacy practice, a lack of competences was observed for the drug development and production perspectives. Both of these perspectives are important because a pharmacist is (or should be) responsible for the entire process, from the development and production of medicines to pharmaceutical care in contact with patients. Nevertheless, Ljubljana’s graduates are employed in both of these pharmaceutical professions in comparable proportions. The Delphi study revealed that the majority of differences in scoring arise from different perspectives on the pharmacy profession (e.g., community, hospital, industrial, etc.). Nevertheless, it can be concluded that curriculum mapping using the EPCF is very useful for evaluating and recognizing weak and strong points of the curriculum. However, the competences of the framework should address various fields of the pharmacist’s profession in a more balanced way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Implementation of Pharmacy Competence Teaching in Estonia
Pharmacy 2017, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5020018 - 31 Mar 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Background: The PHAR-QA, “Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training”, project has produced the European Pharmacy Competence Framework (EPCF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing pharmacy programme at the University of Tartu, using the EPCF. Methods: A qualitative [...] Read more.
Background: The PHAR-QA, “Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training”, project has produced the European Pharmacy Competence Framework (EPCF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing pharmacy programme at the University of Tartu, using the EPCF. Methods: A qualitative assessment of the pharmacy programme by a convenience sample (n = 14) representing different pharmacy stakeholders in Estonia. EPCF competency levels were determined by using a five-point scale tool adopted from the Dutch competency standards framework. Mean scores of competency levels given by academia and other pharmacy stakeholders were compared. Results: Medical and social sciences, pharmaceutical technology, and pharmacy internship were more frequent subject areas contributing to EPCF competencies. In almost all domains, the competency level was seen higher by academia than by other pharmacy stakeholders. Despite on-board theoretical knowledge, the competency level at graduation could be insufficient for independent professional practice. Other pharmacy stakeholders would improve practical implementation of theoretical knowledge, especially to increase patient care competencies. Conclusions: The EPCF was utilized to evaluate professional competencies of entry-level pharmacists who have completed a traditional pharmacy curriculum. More efficient training methods and involvement of practicing specialists were suggested to reduce the gaps of the existing pharmacy programme. Applicability of competence teaching in Estonia requires more research and collaborative communication within the pharmacy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Competence-Based Curricula in the Context of Bologna and EU Higher Education Policy
Pharmacy 2017, 5(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5020017 - 26 Mar 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
At the turn of the century European higher education policy became twin-track. The Bologna Process was launched and ran alongside developments in European legislation. Both tracks displayed a preoccupation with competences, in relation both to citizenship and to labour market needs. Scrutiny of [...] Read more.
At the turn of the century European higher education policy became twin-track. The Bologna Process was launched and ran alongside developments in European legislation. Both tracks displayed a preoccupation with competences, in relation both to citizenship and to labour market needs. Scrutiny of important policy texts (Key Competences, the European Qualifications Framework, ECTS, the Bologna three-cycle degree structure) shows that ‘competence’ has never been given a precise and secure definition. Only very recently has the term entered the discourse of EU legislation on the recognition of professional qualifications. Current work on competence-based curricula in sectoral professions, including pharmacy, has helped bring the two policy tracks into closer alignment. The examples of competences identified in specific professional contexts can assist EU and Bologna policy-makers as they confront future challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
How Two Small Pharmacy Schools’ Competency Standards Compare with an International Competency Framework and How Well These Schools Prepare Students for International Placements
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5010014 - 06 Mar 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
International standards of pharmacy curricula are necessary to ensure student readiness for international placements. This paper explores whether curricula from two pharmacy programs, in Australia and Canada, are congruent with international standards and if students feel prepared for international placements. Nationally prescribed educational [...] Read more.
International standards of pharmacy curricula are necessary to ensure student readiness for international placements. This paper explores whether curricula from two pharmacy programs, in Australia and Canada, are congruent with international standards and if students feel prepared for international placements. Nationally prescribed educational standards for the two schools were compared to each other and then against the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Global Competency Framework. Written student reflections complemented this analysis. Mapping results suggested substantial agreement between the FIP framework and Australia and Canada, with two gaps being identified. Moreover, the students felt their programs prepared them for their international placements. Despite differences in countries, pharmacy programs, and health-systems all students acclimatized to their new practice sites. Implications are that if pharmacy programs align well with FIP, pharmacists should be able to integrate and practise in other jurisdictions that also align with the FIP. This has implications for the mobility of pharmacy practitioners to countries not of their origin of training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
CPD Aligned to Competency Standards to Support Quality Practice
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5010012 - 25 Feb 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2899
Abstract
As medication experts, pharmacists are key members of the patient’s healthcare team. Pharmacists must maintain their competence to practice to remain responsive to the increasingly complex healthcare sector. This paper seeks to determine how competence training for pharmacists may enhance quality in their [...] Read more.
As medication experts, pharmacists are key members of the patient’s healthcare team. Pharmacists must maintain their competence to practice to remain responsive to the increasingly complex healthcare sector. This paper seeks to determine how competence training for pharmacists may enhance quality in their professional development. Results of two separately administered surveys (2012 and 2013) were compared to examine the reported continued professional development (CPD) practices of Australian pharmacists. Examination of results from both studies enabled a focus on how the competency standards inform CPD practice.In the survey administered in 2012, 91% (n = 253/278) pharmacists reported that they knew their current registration requirements. However, in the survey administered in 2013, only 43% (n = 46/107) reported utilization of the National Competency Standards Framework for Pharmacists in Australia (NCS) to self-asses their practice as part of their annual re-registration requirements. Fewer, 23% (n = 25/107), used the NCS to plan their CPD. This may be symptomatic of poor familiarity with the NCS, uncertainty around undertaking self-directed learning as part of a structured learning plan and/or misunderstandings around what CPD should include. This is supported by thematic analysis of pharmacists’ social media comments. Initial and ongoing competence training to support meaningful CPD requires urgent attention in Australia. The competence (knowledge, skills and attributes) required to engage in meaningful CPD practice should be introduced and developed prior to entry into practice; other countries may find they are in a similar position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5010009 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing [...] Read more.
Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students’ (HCSs) knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorts achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half (n = 38, 47%) were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32%) were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3). Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as a major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE) activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Competences for Healthcare Professions in Europe
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5010008 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
In Europe and elsewhere, there is increasing interest in competence-based education (CBE) and training for professional practice in healthcare. This review presents competences for pharmacy practice in Europe and compares them with those for medicine and dentistry. Comparisons amongst competence frameworks were made [...] Read more.
In Europe and elsewhere, there is increasing interest in competence-based education (CBE) and training for professional practice in healthcare. This review presents competences for pharmacy practice in Europe and compares them with those for medicine and dentistry. Comparisons amongst competence frameworks were made by matching the European Directive for Professional Qualifications in sectoral professions such as healthcare (EU directive) with the frameworks of competences elaborated by European consortia in pharmacy (PHAR-QA), medicine (MEDINE), and dentistry (ADEE). The results show that the recommendations of the EU directive for all three professions are similar. There is also widespread similarity in the formulation of competences for all healthcare professions. Furthermore, for medicine and pharmacy, the rankings by practitioners of the vast majority of competences are similar. These results lay the foundations for the design of more interdisciplinary educational programs for healthcare professionals, and for the development of team-based care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Curriculum Challenge—The Need for Outcome (Competence) Descriptors
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5010007 - 17 Feb 2017
Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Some outcomes around, for example, communication have been extensively theorised; others such as accountability have been relatively neglected in the teaching and learning literature. The question therefore is: if we do not have a clear understanding of the outcome, can we systematically apply [...] Read more.
Some outcomes around, for example, communication have been extensively theorised; others such as accountability have been relatively neglected in the teaching and learning literature. The question therefore is: if we do not have a clear understanding of the outcome, can we systematically apply good practice principles in course design such that students are able to achieve the outcomes the community and the profession expect? This paper compares and contrasts the literature around competency outcomes regarding students’ communication skills and the development of accountability and proposes a model to guide the selection of teaching and assessment approaches for accountability, based on the students’ sphere of influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
The Production of the PHAR-QA Competence Framework
Pharmacy 2017, 5(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5020019 - 01 Apr 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
This article describes the background and methodology of the PHAR-QA (Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training) project that produced a competence framework for pharmacy education and practice in the EU. In order to produce a harmonized competence framework that could be [...] Read more.
This article describes the background and methodology of the PHAR-QA (Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training) project that produced a competence framework for pharmacy education and practice in the EU. In order to produce a harmonized competence framework that could be accepted within the EU situation, we developed a two-stage Delphi process centred on two expert panels. A small panel of academics produced the competence framework that was then validated by the rankings of a large panel consisting of representatives of the EU pharmacy community. The main aspects of this process are developed in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Does Competency-Based Education Have a Role in Academic Pharmacy in the United States?
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5010013 - 27 Feb 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
Competency-based Education (CBE) is an educational model that allows students to learn and demonstrate their abilities at their own pace. CBE is growing in popularity in undergraduate educational programs and its role in pharmacy education in the United States (US) is under review. [...] Read more.
Competency-based Education (CBE) is an educational model that allows students to learn and demonstrate their abilities at their own pace. CBE is growing in popularity in undergraduate educational programs and its role in pharmacy education in the United States (US) is under review. In comparison, medical education is utilizing competency-based approaches (such as competencies and Entrustable Professional Activities) to ensure that students possess the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes prior to graduation or program completion. The concept of competency-based approaches is growing in use in pharmacy education in the US, but the future related to aspects of this concept (e.g., mandatory Entrustable Professional Activities) is not certain. A review of pharmacy education’s evolution in the US and a comparison of competency-related terms offers insight into the future use of competency-based approaches and CBE in pharmacy education in the US through the lens of benefits and challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Implementation of Competency-Based Pharmacy Education (CBPE)
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy5010010 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3795
Abstract
Implementation of competency-based pharmacy education (CBPE) is a time-consuming, complicated process, which requires agreement on the tasks of a pharmacist, commitment, institutional stability, and a goal-directed developmental perspective of all stakeholders involved. In this article the main steps in the development of a [...] Read more.
Implementation of competency-based pharmacy education (CBPE) is a time-consuming, complicated process, which requires agreement on the tasks of a pharmacist, commitment, institutional stability, and a goal-directed developmental perspective of all stakeholders involved. In this article the main steps in the development of a fully-developed competency-based pharmacy curriculum (bachelor, master) are described and tips are given for a successful implementation. After the choice for entering into CBPE is made and a competency framework is adopted (step 1), intended learning outcomes are defined (step 2), followed by analyzing the required developmental trajectory (step 3) and the selection of appropriate assessment methods (step 4). Designing the teaching-learning environment involves the selection of learning activities, student experiences, and instructional methods (step 5). Finally, an iterative process of evaluation and adjustment of individual courses, and the curriculum as a whole, is entered (step 6). Successful implementation of CBPE requires a system of effective quality management and continuous professional development as a teacher. In this article suggestions for the organization of CBPE and references to more detailed literature are given, hoping to facilitate the implementation of CBPE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competence Training for Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop