Special Issue "Country Profiles of the PHARMINE Survey of European Higher Educational Institutions Delivering Pharmacy Education and Training"

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Jeffrey Atkinson

Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy, 12 rue de Versigny, Villers 54600, France
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +33607176102
Interests: pharmacy education and training; bibliometrics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe) European consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practices in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for communities, hospitals and industrial pharmacies), and in the impact of the Bologna agreement, and of the directive of the European Commission, on education and on training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy, in European degree courses.

The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries.

Prof. Jeffrey Atkinson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pharmacy
  • education
  • training
  • practice
  • Europe

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
The Country Profiles of the PHARMINE Survey of European Higher Educational Institutions Delivering Pharmacy Education and Training
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe) consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy), and in the [...] Read more.
The PHARMINE (Pharmacy Education in Europe) consortium surveyed pharmacy education and practice in 2012. Surveys were updated in 2017 for publication. The PHARMINE consortium was especially interested in specialization in pharmacy education and practice (for community, hospital, and industrial pharmacy), and in the impact of the Bologna agreement and the directive of the European Commission on education and training for the sectoral profession of pharmacy on European degree courses. The surveys underline the varying attitudes of the different European countries to these various aspects. The surveys will now be published in Pharmacy. They will be useful to researchers in education, and to staff and students interested in mobility amongst different European and/or non-European countries. In order to assure a full understanding of the country profiles to be published in the journal Pharmacy, this introductory article describes the general format of the survey questionnaire used. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Finland
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Pharmacy Education in Europe (PHARMINE) project studies pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU) member states. The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being [...] Read more.
The Pharmacy Education in Europe (PHARMINE) project studies pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU) member states. The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being published as reference documents for students and staff interested in research on pharmacy education in the EU, and in mobility. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Finland. Pharmacies have a monopoly on the dispensation of medicines. They can also provide diagnostic services. Proviisori act as pharmacy owners and managers. They follow a five-year (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six-month traineeship. Farmaseutti, who follow a three-year (B.Sc. Pharm.) degree course (also with a six-month traineeship), can dispense medicines and counsel patients in Finland. The B.Sc. and the first three years of the M.Sc. involve the same course. The current pharmacy curriculum (revised in 2014) is based on five strands: (1) pharmacy as a multidisciplinary science with numerous opportunities in the working life, (2) basics of pharmaceutical sciences, (3) patient and medication, (4) optional studies and selected study paths, and (5) drug development and use. The learning outcomes of the pharmacy graduates include (1) basics of natural sciences: chemistry, physics, technology, biosciences required for all the students (B.Sc. and M.Sc.), (2) medicine and medication: compounding of medicines, holism of medication, pharmacology and biopharmaceutics (side-effects and interactions), patient counseling, efficacy and safety of medicines and medication, (3) comprehensive and supportive interactions of the various disciplines of pharmacy education and research: the role and significance of pharmacy as a discipline in society, the necessary skills and knowledge in scientific thinking and pharmaceutical research, and (4) basics of economics and management, multidisciplinarity, hospital pharmacy, scientific writing skills, management skills. In addition, teaching and learning of “general skills”, such as the pharmacist’s professional identity and the role in society as a part of the healthcare system, critical and creative thinking, problem-solving skills, personal learning skills and life-long learning, attitude and sense of responsibility, and communication skills are developed in direct association with subject-specific courses. Professional specialization studies in industrial pharmacy, and community and hospital pharmacy are given at the post-graduate level at the University of Helsinki. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Slovenia
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU) member states. The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are [...] Read more.
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU) member states. The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being published as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Slovenia. In the light of this, we examine the harmonisation of practice and education in Slovenia with EU norms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Croatia
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU). An electronic survey was sent out to community, hospital, and industrial pharmacists, and university staff and students. This paper presents the [...] Read more.
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU). An electronic survey was sent out to community, hospital, and industrial pharmacists, and university staff and students. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey for Croatia. We examined to what extent harmonisation with EU norms has occurred, whether this has promoted mobility, and what impact it has had on healthcare. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Austria
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU) member states. The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being [...] Read more.
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU) member states. The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being published as reference documents for students and staff interested in research on pharmacy education in the EU and in mobility. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Austria. In the light of this, we examine the harmonisation of practice and education in Austria with EU norms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Latvia
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the member states of the European Union (EU). The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of [...] Read more.
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the member states of the European Union (EU). The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being published as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Latvia. In the light of this, we examine the harmonisation of practice and education in Latvia with EU norms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Romania
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU). An electronic survey was sent out to representatives of different sectors (community, hospital, industrial pharmacists, university staff, and students) in each [...] Read more.
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU). An electronic survey was sent out to representatives of different sectors (community, hospital, industrial pharmacists, university staff, and students) in each individual EU member state. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Romania. In the light of this data we examine to what extent harmonisation of practice and education with EU norms has occurred, whether this has promoted mobility of pharmacy professionals, academics and students, and what impact it has had on healthcare in Romania. The survey reveals the substantial changes in Romanian pharmacy practice and education since the 1989 change in government and Romania joining the EU in 2007. Romania remains, however, a poor country with expenditure on healthcare less than one-third of the EU average. This factor also impacts pharmacy practice. Although practice seems aligned with EU norms, this masks the substantial imbalance between the situation in the richer capital, Bucharest, and that of the poorer countryside. Harmonisation to EU norms in pharmacy education has not promoted student exchange and mobility but, rather, a brain drain in pharmaceutical graduates to other EU countries. Specialisation in industrial practice has been lost since 1989 with pharmacists being replaced by chemists. In hospitals the hospital pharmacist is being replaced by the clinical pharmacist. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in the Czech Republic
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy education, practice and legislation in the European Union (EU) with the objectives of evaluating to what degree harmonisation had taken place with the EU, and producing documents on each individual EU [...] Read more.
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy education, practice and legislation in the European Union (EU) with the objectives of evaluating to what degree harmonisation had taken place with the EU, and producing documents on each individual EU member state. Part of this work was in the form of a survey of pharmacy education, practice, and legislation in the various member states. We will publish the individual member state surveys as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy education, training, and practice in the Czech Republic. Czech community pharmacies sell and provide advice on Rx and Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines; they also provide diagnostic services (e.g., blood pressure measurement). Pharmacists (lékárník in Czech) study for five years and graduate with a Magister (Mgr., equivalent to M.Pharm.) degree. The Mgr. diploma is the only requirement for registration as a pharmacist. Pharmacists can own and manage community pharmacies, or work as responsible pharmacists in pharmacies. All practising pharmacists must be registered with the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists. The ownership of a community pharmacy is not restricted to members of the pharmacy profession; the majority of pharmacies are organised into various pharmacy chains. There are two universities providing higher education in pharmacy in the Czech Republic: the Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, which was established in 1969, and the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences in Brno, which was established in 1991. The pharmacy curriculum is organized as a seamless, fully integrated, five-year master degree course. There is a six-month traineeship supervised by the university, which usually takes place during the fifth year. Thus, the pharmacy curriculum is organised in accordance with the EU directive on sectoral professions that lays down the imperatives for pharmacy education, training, and practice in the various member states of the EU. Currently, no specialisation courses are available at the university level. Specialisation is organised in the form of postgraduate, continuing professional development by the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists, and delivered by the Institute of Postgraduate Education for Health Professions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Bulgaria
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow [...] Read more.
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union. Full article
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