Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018) | Viewed by 32271

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chair and Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, 3501 Terrace St Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Interests: simulation education; clinical decision making; problem solving, assessment; pharmacy education; academic and clinical pharmacy leadership; scholarship of teaching and learning

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Guest Editor
Instructional Development Specialist, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, 3501 Terrace St Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Interests: simulation education; high fidelity human patient simulation; standardized patients; simulated electronic health records; multi-modality simulation; readiness assessment; simulation operations; computer science; programming

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Educational innovation is continuing to advance higher education, especially health sciences education and training. Healthcare simulation has continued to advance teaching, learning, assessment, scholarship, research, and patient care. We are at a pivotal time in healthcare education, as we are challenged each day to meet the complicated needs of our students, our institutions, our interprofessional colleagues, our patients, and our society. We are also faced with providing our educational programs with efficiency and value demanded within higher education today. Pharmacy education is continuing to advance in its use of simulation in a variety of settings from basic physical assessment to pharmacotherapeutic clinical decision making to advanced interprofessional teamwork training. As educators, we are called to enthusiastically embrace the opportunity to examine the past, current and future state of simulation within pharmacy education, interprofessional training, international instruction, and growing opportunities in education within patient -care settings.

Prof. Amy L. Seybert
Mr. Lawrence R. Kobulinsky
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Simulation education
  • High-fidelity patient simulation
  • Clinical decision making
  • Interprofessional education
  • International education
  • Assessment
  • Patient safety

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 213 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cross-Training on Medical Teams’ Teamwork and Collaboration: Use of Simulation
by Ashley R. Hedges, Heather J. Johnson, Lawrence R. Kobulinsky, Jamie L. Estock, David Eibling and Amy L. Seybert
Pharmacy 2019, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7010013 - 19 Jan 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4215
Abstract
Previous research in the US Navy demonstrated that cross-training enhances teamwork and interpersonal collaboration. Limited data exists on cross-training effectiveness in medical education. This research aimed to assess whether cross-training would have similar effects on medical teams. A multidisciplinary pair of resident participants—consisting [...] Read more.
Previous research in the US Navy demonstrated that cross-training enhances teamwork and interpersonal collaboration. Limited data exists on cross-training effectiveness in medical education. This research aimed to assess whether cross-training would have similar effects on medical teams. A multidisciplinary pair of resident participants—consisting of one physician and one pharmacist—was randomly assigned to cross-training or current training condition. The training experience involved one video-based content module (training a pharmacist’s task of pharmacokinetic dosing and a physician’s task of intubation) and one simulation-based practice scenario (collaborative treatment of an unstable critically ill simulated patient). Interprofessional pairs randomized to cross-training condition participated in both the content module and practice scenario in the alternative professional role whereas pairs randomized to current training condition participated in their own professional role. Pairs also participated in pre- and post- training assessment scenarios in their own professional role. Teamwork and interprofessionalism were measured immediately following assessment scenarios. Knowledge assessments were conducted at the start and end of the scenario sequence. Multidisciplinary pairs experiencing cross-training showed a significant improvement in teamwork (increased by 6.11% vs. 3.24%, p < 0.05). All participants demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge scores (increase of 14% cross-training, p < 0.05, and increase of 13.9% control, p < 0.05). Our project suggests that cross-training can improve teamwork in interprofessional medical teams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
7 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Virtual Electronic Health Record Technology with Simulation-Based Learning in an Acute Care Pharmacotherapy Course
by James C. Coons, Lawrence Kobulinsky, Deborah Farkas, John Lutz and Amy L. Seybert
Pharmacy 2018, 6(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6040123 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2991
Abstract
Electronic health record (EHR) technology use in the educational setting to advance pharmacy practice skills with patient simulation has not been described previously in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a virtual EHR on learning [...] Read more.
Electronic health record (EHR) technology use in the educational setting to advance pharmacy practice skills with patient simulation has not been described previously in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a virtual EHR on learning efficiency, perceptions of clinical skills, communication, and satisfaction. This was a prospective study conducted in a cardiovascular therapeutics course in the Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. Students were randomized to use of a virtual EHR with patient simulation or to patient simulation alone (control). The efficiency of learning was assessed by the time to optimal recommendation for each scenario. Surveys (n = 12 questions) were administered electronically to evaluate perceptions of clinical skills, communication, and learning satisfaction. Data were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U or Wilcoxon signed-rank test as appropriate. Use of the virtual EHR decreased the amount of time needed to provide the optimal treatment recommendations by 25% compared to control. The virtual EHR also significantly improved students’ perceptions of their clinical skills, communication, and satisfaction compared to control. The virtual EHR demonstrated value in learning efficiency while providing students with an engaging means of practicing essential pharmacist functions in a simulated setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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15 pages, 389 KiB  
Article
Interprofessional Pharmacokinetics Simulation: Pharmacy and Nursing Students’ Perceptions
by Cheryl D. Cropp, Jennifer Beall, Ellen Buckner, Frankie Wallis and Amanda Barron
Pharmacy 2018, 6(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6030070 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5555
Abstract
Interprofessional practice between pharmacists and nurses can involve pharmacokinetic dosing of medications in a hospital setting. This study describes student perceptions of an interprofessional collaboration pharmacokinetics simulation on the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) 2016 Core Competencies. The investigators developed a simulation activity for [...] Read more.
Interprofessional practice between pharmacists and nurses can involve pharmacokinetic dosing of medications in a hospital setting. This study describes student perceptions of an interprofessional collaboration pharmacokinetics simulation on the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) 2016 Core Competencies. The investigators developed a simulation activity for senior undergraduate nursing and second-year pharmacy students. Nursing and pharmacy students (n = 54, 91 respectively) participated in the simulation using medium-fidelity manikins. Each case represented a pharmacokinetic dosing consult (vancomycin, tobramycin, phenytoin, theophylline, or lidocaine). Nursing students completed head-to-toe assessment and pharmacy students gathered necessary information and calculated empiric and adjusted doses. Students communicated using SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation). Students participated in debrief sessions and completed an IRB-approved online survey. Themes from survey responses revealed meaningful perceptions in all IPEC competencies as well as themes of safety, advocacy, appreciation, and areas for improvement. Students reported learning effectively from the simulation experience. Few studies relate to this type of interprofessional education experience and this study begins to explore student perceptions of interprofessional education (IPE) in a health sciences clinical context through simulation. This real-world application of nursing and pharmacy interprofessional collaboration can positively affect patient-centered outcomes and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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9 pages, 832 KiB  
Article
Use of Standardized Patient Simulations to Assess Impact of Motivational Interviewing Training on Social–Emotional Development
by Suzanne Galal, Deepti Vyas, John Mayberry, Edward L. Rogan, Shivani Patel and Sara Ruda
Pharmacy 2018, 6(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6030065 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2777
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of motivational interviewing (MI) training on students’ social–emotional development. Two simulations using standardized patients (SP) were conducted within a smoking cessation module. Students first completed a 4 h self-study module focused on smoking [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of motivational interviewing (MI) training on students’ social–emotional development. Two simulations using standardized patients (SP) were conducted within a smoking cessation module. Students first completed a 4 h self-study module focused on smoking cessation tools and general counseling techniques. Faculty then administered a 15-item rubric focused on students’ self-assessment of their verbal/non-verbal communication, social–emotional competence and MI skills. Students then participated in a smoking cessation counseling session with an SP. SPs used the same rubric to assess student performance. Teaching assistants (TAs) observed and assessed the students using the same rubric and an additional 22 items related to clinical skills. TAs and SPs then provided feedback on areas of improvement. The following week, students first completed a 3 h self-study module on MI then participated in a different smoking cessation scenario. After completion, the 15-item self-assessment rubric was administered. There was a significant improvement in TA assessed student performance with an average score improvement of 8% (pre-intervention score = 67%; post-intervention mean = 75%). Students had dramatic gains in their self-assessment with their scores rising by an average of 22%. Using MI techniques can improve students’ self-assessed and perceived social–emotional competency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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3 pages, 170 KiB  
Communication
The Need to Introduce Simulation-Based Teaching in Pharmacy Education in Saudi Arabia
by Ejaz Cheema
Pharmacy 2018, 6(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6030060 - 3 Jul 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3410
Abstract
Pharmacists worldwide, including Saudi Arabia, are now increasingly expected to play a more patient-centred role. The transition of pharmacists from a dispensing role to a more patient-centred clinical role requires the adoption of innovative learning techniques in pharmacy teaching and learning to transform [...] Read more.
Pharmacists worldwide, including Saudi Arabia, are now increasingly expected to play a more patient-centred role. The transition of pharmacists from a dispensing role to a more patient-centred clinical role requires the adoption of innovative learning techniques in pharmacy teaching and learning to transform the future pharmacy workforce. One such innovation in pharmacy education is simulation-based pharmacy teaching. The use of simulation in pharmacy education allows pharmacy students to not only improve their clinical knowledge and skills, but also serves as a tool to improve their critical thinking that is a pre-requisite in sound clinical decision-making. Given the importance of patient-oriented teaching in pharmacy education, the majority of institutions offering pharmacy education in the developed countries have successfully integrated simulation-based teaching in their respective curricula to meet both patient and practice needs. However, most of the universities offering undergraduate pharmacy programs in the developing world, including Saudi Arabia, have limited application of patient-focused teaching in their respective programs. This article aims to highlight the importance of introducing simulation-based teaching in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
7 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
Clinical Pharmacy Education in Japan: Using Simulated Patients in Laboratory-Based Communication-Skills Training before Clinical Practice
by Rie Kubota, Kiyoshi Shibuya, Yoichi Tanaka, Manahito Aoki, Megumi Shiomi, Wataru Ando, Katsuya Otori and Takako Komiyama
Pharmacy 2018, 6(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6020049 - 1 Jun 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4864
Abstract
The Japanese pharmaceutical curriculum was extended from four to six years in 2006. Students now receive practical communication-skills training in their fourth year, before progressing to train in hospital and community pharmacies in their fifth year. Kitasato University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo, had [...] Read more.
The Japanese pharmaceutical curriculum was extended from four to six years in 2006. Students now receive practical communication-skills training in their fourth year, before progressing to train in hospital and community pharmacies in their fifth year. Kitasato University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo, had established a program to meet these aims before the 2006 guidance. In the present study, we discuss and evaluate the features of this communication-skills training program. This study enrolled 242 fourth-year pharmacy students at Kitasato University. Students filled out a questionnaire survey after completing the laboratory element of their undergraduate education. As part of training, students were asked to obtain patient data from a model medical chart, before performing simulated patient interviews covering hospital admission and patient counseling. These simulations were repeated in a small group, and feedback was provided to students by both the simulated patient and the faculty after each presentation. It was found that students were able to develop their communication skills through this approach. Thus, an effective system of gradual and continuous training has been developed, which allows students to acquire clinical and practical communication skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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13 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
Simulation and Feedback in Health Education: A Mixed Methods Study Comparing Three Simulation Modalities
by Lauren Tait, Kenneth Lee, Rohan Rasiah, Joyce M. Cooper, Tristan Ling, Benjamin Geelan and Ivan Bindoff
Pharmacy 2018, 6(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6020041 - 3 May 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4396
Abstract
Background. There are numerous approaches to simulating a patient encounter in pharmacy education. However, little direct comparison between these approaches has been undertaken. Our objective was to investigate student experiences, satisfaction, and feedback preferences between three scenario simulation modalities (paper-, actor-, and [...] Read more.
Background. There are numerous approaches to simulating a patient encounter in pharmacy education. However, little direct comparison between these approaches has been undertaken. Our objective was to investigate student experiences, satisfaction, and feedback preferences between three scenario simulation modalities (paper-, actor-, and computer-based). Methods. We conducted a mixed methods study with randomized cross-over of simulation modalities on final-year Australian graduate-entry Master of Pharmacy students. Participants completed case-based scenarios within each of three simulation modalities, with feedback provided at the completion of each scenario in a format corresponding to each simulation modality. A post-simulation questionnaire collected qualitative and quantitative responses pertaining to participant satisfaction, experiences, and feedback preferences. Results. Participants reported similar levels satisfaction across all three modalities. However, each modality resulted in unique positive and negative experiences, such as student disengagement with paper-based scenarios. Conclusion. Importantly, the themes of guidance and opportunity for peer discussion underlie the best forms of feedback for students. The provision of feedback following simulation should be carefully considered and delivered, with all three simulation modalities producing both positive and negative experiences in regard to their feedback format. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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11 pages, 4405 KiB  
Article
Simulation as a Central Feature of an Elective Course: Does Simulated Bedside Care Impact Learning?
by Michael C. Thomas and Peter J. Hughes
Pharmacy 2018, 6(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy6020040 - 3 May 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3123
Abstract
A three-credit, simulation-based, emergency medicine elective course was designed and offered to doctor of pharmacy students for two years. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in exam performance stratified by student simulation experience, namely either as an active [...] Read more.
A three-credit, simulation-based, emergency medicine elective course was designed and offered to doctor of pharmacy students for two years. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in exam performance stratified by student simulation experience, namely either as an active observer or as part of bedside clinical care. The secondary objective was to report student satisfaction. Examination performance for simulation-based questions was compared based on the student role (evaluator versus clinical) using the Student’s t-test. Summary responses from Likert scale-based student satisfaction responses were collected. A total of 24 students took the course: 12 in each offering. Performance was similar whether the student was assigned to the evaluation team or the clinical team for all of the comparisons (mid-term and final 2015 and 2016, all p-values > 0.05). Students were very satisfied with the course. Of the 19 questions assessing the qualitative aspects of the course, all of the students agreed or strongly agreed to 17 statements, and all of the students were neutral, agreed, or strongly agreed to the remaining two statements. Direct participation and active observation in simulation-based experiences appear to be equally valuable in the learning process, as evidenced by examination performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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