Special Issue "Legionella Contamination in Water Environment"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2020).
Interests: detection of emerging pathogens in the environment; evaluation of antibiotic resistance in water and wastewater; development of molecular methods for pathogen detection in the environment and food; microbiological risk evaluation in urban aquatic environment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Interests: methods for the detection of Legionella in water; study of disinfection method against waterborne pathogens; evaluation of microbiological air quality
Legionella spp. are ubiquitous microorganisms that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. From these natural reservoirs, this opportunistic pathogen can spread to and colonize artificial aquatic environments. Water systems of large buildings, such as hospitals, thermal baths, hotels, and dental units are often contaminated by legionellae, whereas little data about Legionella contamination in occupational environments are available. Legionella pneumophila is most frequently associated with human disease; however, other species, including Legionella bozemanae, Legionella dumoffii, and Legionella longbeachae also cause human infections. The most common way of contagion is via aerosols inhalation containing infectious Legionella from shower heads, certain medical equipment (e.g., respiratory equipment), cooling towers, hydrotherapy equipment, decorative fountains, etc.
Studies of associations between weather variables and sporadic cases of legionellosis suggest alternative potential exposure pathways. Associations have been reported between legionellosis and several weather variables, but the most consistent results relate to rainfall highlighting the possible role of the climatic change in the Legionella distribution.
A range of physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella contamination; however, to date, the most effective procedures have not been defined. Therefore, alternative disinfection methods that are effective in controlling the proliferation of Legionella could be useful tools to reduce the risk of the spread of Legionnaires' disease.
Surveying and monitoring of legionellae in water systems is needed for risk assessment and prevention of legionellosis. Assessments of L. pneumophila in water are typically performed by culture isolation on selective media. However, although Legionella culture growth is essential for identifying and typing Legionella strains, it has several limits including long incubation times and the inability to detect viable but non-culturable bacteria (VBNC) that may represent a public health hazard. For this reason, in the last decades, alternative tools for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Legionella in water samples has been proposed to overcome the many disadvantages of traditional culture methods (e.g., qPCR, EMA or PMA qPCR, biosensors, NGS).
We invite you to submit a review article or original research article related to these issues.
Potential topics include, but are not limited to the following:
- Legionella occurrence in water environments (e.g., wastewater, water distribution system, water dental unit)
- Legionella risk evaluation in occupational environments
- Microbial risk assessment applied to Legionella contamination in water
- Effectiveness of disinfection procedures in reducing Legionella contamination
- New methods for Legionella detection in water
- Climate changes and Legionella distribution
Dr. Silvia Bonetta
Dr. Sara Bonetta
Manuscript Submission Information
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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Water environment
- Environmental monitoring
- Detection methods
- Disinfection procedures
- Climate changes
- Risk assessment