Next Article in Journal
The Complex Relationship between HTLV-1 and Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD)
Next Article in Special Issue
Prevention and Control of Legionella and Pseudomonas spp. Colonization in Dental Units
Previous Article in Journal
Foetal Immune Response Activation and High Replication Rate during Generation of Classical Swine Fever Congenital Infection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Intracellular Behaviour of Three Legionella pneumophila Strains within Three Amoeba Strains, Including Willaertia magna C2c Maky
Open AccessReview

Legionella pneumophila and Protozoan Hosts: Implications for the Control of Hospital and Potable Water Systems

College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040286
Received: 21 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legionella Contamination in Water Environment)
Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen of public health concern. It is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) and Pontiac fever and is ubiquitous in manufactured water systems, where protozoan hosts and complex microbial communities provide protection from disinfection procedures. This review collates the literature describing interactions between L. pneumophila and protozoan hosts in hospital and municipal potable water distribution systems. The effectiveness of currently available water disinfection protocols to control L. pneumophila and its protozoan hosts is explored. The studies identified in this systematic literature review demonstrated the failure of common disinfection procedures to achieve long term elimination of L. pneumophila and protozoan hosts from potable water. It has been demonstrated that protozoan hosts facilitate the intracellular replication and packaging of viable L. pneumophila in infectious vesicles; whereas, cyst-forming protozoans provide protection from prolonged environmental stress. Disinfection procedures and protozoan hosts also facilitate biogenesis of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) L. pneumophila which have been shown to be highly resistant to many water disinfection protocols. In conclusion, a better understanding of L. pneumophila-protozoan interactions and the structure of complex microbial biofilms is required for the improved management of L. pneumophila and the prevention of LD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Legionella pneumophila; protozoa; Vermamoeba; Acanthamoeba; potable water; hospital water; water disinfection; legionellosis Legionella pneumophila; protozoa; Vermamoeba; Acanthamoeba; potable water; hospital water; water disinfection; legionellosis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nisar, M.A.; Ross, K.E.; Brown, M.H.; Bentham, R.; Whiley, H. Legionella pneumophila and Protozoan Hosts: Implications for the Control of Hospital and Potable Water Systems. Pathogens 2020, 9, 286.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop