Next Article in Journal
No Confirmed Cases of Taenia solium Taeniasis in a Group of Recently Arrived Sub-Saharan Migrants to Italy
Next Article in Special Issue
Intracellular Behaviour of Three Legionella pneumophila Strains within Three Amoeba Strains, Including Willaertia magna C2c Maky
Previous Article in Journal
Serological and Molecular Investigation of Brucella Species in Dogs in Pakistan
Previous Article in Special Issue
Advances in Legionella Control by a New Formulation of Hydrogen Peroxide and Silver Salts in a Hospital Hot Water Network
Open AccessArticle

Water Quality as a Predictor of Legionella Positivity of Building Water Systems

1
Special Pathogens Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
2
School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040295
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 9 December 2019 / Accepted: 11 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legionella Contamination in Water Environment)
Testing drinking water systems for the presence of Legionella colonization is a proactive approach to assess and reduce the risk of Legionnaires’ disease. Previous studies suggest that there may be a link between Legionella positivity in the hot water return line or certain water quality parameters (temperature, free chlorine residual, etc.) with distal site Legionella positivity. It has been suggested that these measurements could be used as a surrogate for testing for Legionella in building water systems. We evaluated the relationship between hot water return line Legionella positivity and other water quality parameters and Legionella colonization in premise plumbing systems by testing 269 samples from domestic cold and hot water samples in 28 buildings. The hot water return line Legionella positivity and distal site positivity only demonstrated a 77.8% concordance rate. Hot water return line Legionella positivity compared to distal site positivity had a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 96%. There was poor correlation and a low positive predictive value between the hot water return line and distal outlet positivity. There was no correlation between Legionella distal site positivity and total bacteria (heterotrophic plate count), pH, free chlorine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper, temperature, total organic carbon, or incoming cold-water chlorine concentration. These findings suggest that hot water return line Legionella positivity and other water quality parameters are not predictive of distal site positivity and should not be used alone to determine the building’s Legionella colonization rate and effectiveness of water management programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Legionella; distal site positivity; hot water return line; chlorine; HPC; temperature; water management Legionella; distal site positivity; hot water return line; chlorine; HPC; temperature; water management
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pierre, D.; Baron, J.L.; Ma, X.; Sidari, F.P., III; Wagener, M.M.; Stout, J.E. Water Quality as a Predictor of Legionella Positivity of Building Water Systems. Pathogens 2019, 8, 295.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop