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Nutritional Strategies to Offset Disuse-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Anabolic Resistance in Older Adults: From Whole-Foods to Isolated Ingredients
Open AccessArticle

Association between Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index and Skeletal Muscle Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Post-Menopausal Women Who Have Undergone Total Thyroidectomy

1
Department of General Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
4
Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
5
Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
6
Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
7
Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
8
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both are equal contributors.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061683
Received: 16 April 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
Background: Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in postmenopausal women and may result in fractures and disabilities. Total thyroidectomy has also been associated with loss of bone mass. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate associations among nutritional status, skeletal muscle index and markers of bone turnover to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who had undergone total thyroidectomy. Methods: Fifty postmenopausal women who had undergone total thyroidectomy were included. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) was calculated using baseline body weight and serum albumin level. Skeletal muscle mass index was calculated as the appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the height squared and assessed using DXA. Results. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis showed that a low GNRI was significantly associated with low lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and T-score, and that a low ASM/height2 was significantly associated with low femoral neck BMD and T-score. A low vitamin D level was significantly associated with low femoral neck BMD and T-score and low total hip BMD and T-score. A high bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was significantly associated with low femoral neck T-score and low total hip BMD and T-score. A low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was significantly associated with low total hip BMD and T-score. Conclusion: In the postmenopausal women who had undergone total thyroidectomy in this study, BMD was positively associated with GNRI, skeletal muscle mass index, and levels of vitamin D and serum IGF-1, and inversely associated with bone ALP level. Nutritional status, skeletal muscle mass index and bone turnover biomarkers can be used to early identify patients with a high risk of osteoporosis in this high-risk group. View Full-Text
Keywords: menopausal women; total thyroidectomy; geriatric nutritional risk index; bone mineral density; appendicular skeletal muscle mass menopausal women; total thyroidectomy; geriatric nutritional risk index; bone mineral density; appendicular skeletal muscle mass
MDPI and ACS Style

Chiu, T.-H.; Chen, S.-C.; Yu, H.-C.; Hsu, J.-S.; Shih, M.-C.; Jiang, H.-J.; Hsu, W.-H.; Lee, M.-Y. Association between Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index and Skeletal Muscle Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Post-Menopausal Women Who Have Undergone Total Thyroidectomy. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1683.

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