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Special Issue "Advances in Dietary Supplements"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Taylor C. Wallace

1. Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, George Mason University, USA
2. Think Healthy Group, Inc., USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: anthocyanins; dietary bioactives; multivitamins; dietary supplements; choline; eggs; calcium; vitamin D; bone health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Advances in Dietary Supplements”, welcomes the submission of original research manuscripts and/or reviews of the current scientific literature. Consumers utilize and have faith in a variety of products; this is illustrated by the rapid expansion of the dietary supplement market over the last 20 years. Their mainstream use and availability creates an enormous need for balanced and credible scientific evidence highlighting their safety, efficacy and potential effects on human health.

Manuscripts should focus on the benefits and harms of dietary supplement use across the population or a specific subpopulation. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Health effects of dietary supplements (both positive and negative), with an emphasis on human studies.
  • Human clinical trials, controlled feeding studies, or longitudinal analyses of dietary supplement use.
  • Motivations for and prevalence of dietary supplement use.
  • Mechanism(s) of action and/or synergistic interactions of compounds within dietary supplements.
  • The effect of dietary supplements on biomarkers of nutritional status, particularly those measured in human samples.
  • Development of analytical methods for identification and quantification of dietary bioactive components found in supplements.
Dr. Taylor C. Wallace
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dietary supplements
  • Nutrients
  • Dietary bioactive compounds
  • Safety
  • Efficacy
  • Health promotion
  • Disease prevention

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effects of Glycine on Collagen, PDGF, and EGF Expression in Model of Oral Mucositis
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101485
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Oral mucositis is frequently a toxic effect of chemotherapeutic and/or radiotherapeutic treatment, resulting from complex multifaceted biological events involving DNA damage. The clinical manifestations have a negative impact on the life quality of cancer patients. Preventive measures and curative treatment of mucositis are
[...] Read more.
Oral mucositis is frequently a toxic effect of chemotherapeutic and/or radiotherapeutic treatment, resulting from complex multifaceted biological events involving DNA damage. The clinical manifestations have a negative impact on the life quality of cancer patients. Preventive measures and curative treatment of mucositis are still not well established. The glycine has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and cytoprotective actions, being a potential therapeutic in mucositis. The objective was to evaluate the effects of glycine on the expression of collagen and growth factors, platelet and epidermal in a hamster model oral mucositis. The mucositis was induced by the protocol of Sonis. There were 40 hamsters used, divided into two groups: Group I-control; Group II-supplemented with 5% intraperitoneal glycine, 2.0 mg/g diluted in hepes. Histopathological sections were used to perform the immune-histochemical method, the evaluation of collagen expression, and the growth factors: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet (PDGF). It was observed that the group supplemented with glycine experienced higher amounts of collagen expression and predominance type of collagen I. The glycine group presented lower immunoexpression of the growth factors, EGF and PDGF. The group supplemented with glycine showed a marked healing process of the oral mucosite, demonstrated by the predominance of collagen type I and reduction of growth factors, EGF and PDGF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Further Evidence on Efficacy of Diet Supplementation with Fatty Acids in Ocular Pathologies: Insights from the EAE Model of Optic Neuritis
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101447
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of optic neuritis, we recently demonstrated that diet supplementation with a balanced mixture of fatty acids (FAs), including omega 3 and omega 6, efficiently limited inflammatory events in the retina and prevented retinal ganglion cell
[...] Read more.
In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of optic neuritis, we recently demonstrated that diet supplementation with a balanced mixture of fatty acids (FAs), including omega 3 and omega 6, efficiently limited inflammatory events in the retina and prevented retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, although mechanisms underlying the efficacy of FAs were to be elucidated. Whether FAs effectiveness was accompanied by efficient rescue of demyelinating events in the optic nerve was also unresolved. Finally, the possibility that RGC rescue might result in ameliorated visual performance remained to be investigated. Here, the EAE model of optic neuritis was used to investigate mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of FAs, including their potential efficacy on macrophage polarization. In addition, we determined how FAs-induced rescue of RGC degeneration was related to optic nerve histopathology by performing ultrastructural morphometric analysis with transmission electron microscopy. Finally, RGC rescue was correlated with visual performance by recording photopic electroretinogram, an efficient methodology to unravel the role of RGCs in the generation of electroretinographic waves. We conclude that the ameliorative effects of FAs were dependent on a predominant anti-inflammatory action including a role on promoting the shift of macrophages from the inflammatory M1 phenotype towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. This would finally result in restored optic nerve histopathology and ameliorated visual performance. These findings can now offer new perspectives for implementing our knowledge on the effectiveness of diet supplementation in counteracting optic neuritis and suggest the importance of FAs as possible adjuvants in therapies against inflammatory diseases of the eye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Annurca Apple Polyphenols Ignite Keratin Production in Hair Follicles by Inhibiting the Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Amino Acid Oxidation
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101406
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
Patterned hair loss (PHL) affects around 50% of the adult population worldwide. The negative impact that this condition exerts on people’s life quality has boosted the appearance of over-the-counter products endowed with hair-promoting activity. Nutraceuticals enriched in polyphenols have been recently shown to
[...] Read more.
Patterned hair loss (PHL) affects around 50% of the adult population worldwide. The negative impact that this condition exerts on people’s life quality has boosted the appearance of over-the-counter products endowed with hair-promoting activity. Nutraceuticals enriched in polyphenols have been recently shown to promote hair growth and counteract PHL. Malus pumila Miller cv. Annurca is an apple native to Southern Italy presenting one of the highest contents of Procyanidin B2. We have recently shown that oral consumption of Annurca polyphenolic extracts (AAE) stimulates hair growth, hair number, hair weight and keratin content in healthy human subjects. Despite its activity, the analysis of the molecular mechanism behind its hair promoting effect is still partially unclear. In this work we performed an unprecedented metabolite analysis of hair follicles (HFs) in mice topically treated with AAE. The metabolomic profile, based on a high-resolution mass spectrometry approach, revealed that AAE re-programs murine HF metabolism. AAE acts by inhibiting several NADPH dependent reactions. Glutaminolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, glutathione, citrulline and nucleotide synthesis are all halted in vivo by the treatment of HFs with AAE. On the contrary, mitochondrial respiration, β-oxidation and keratin production are stimulated by the treatment with AAE. The metabolic shift induced by AAE spares amino acids from being oxidized, ultimately keeping them available for keratin biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplementation of Selenoneine-Containing Tuna Dark Muscle Extract Effectively Reduces Pathology of Experimental Colorectal Cancers in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101380
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
Selenoneine is an ergothioneine analog with greater antioxidant activity and is the major form of organic selenium in the blood, muscles, and other tissues of tuna. The aim of this study was to determine whether a selenoneine-rich diet exerts antioxidant activities that can
[...] Read more.
Selenoneine is an ergothioneine analog with greater antioxidant activity and is the major form of organic selenium in the blood, muscles, and other tissues of tuna. The aim of this study was to determine whether a selenoneine-rich diet exerts antioxidant activities that can prevent carcinogenesis in two types of colorectal cancer model in mice. We administrated selenoneine-containing tuna dark muscle extract (STDME) to mice for one week and used azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for inducing colorectal carcinogenesis. Next, we examined the incidence of macroscopic polyps and performed functional analysis of immune cells from the spleen. In the AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model, the oral administration of STDME significantly decreased tumor incidence and inhibited the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) while also inhibiting the downregulation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production during carcinogenesis. These results suggest that dietary STDME may be an effective agent for reducing colorectal tumor progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Carnosine Supplementation Improves Serum Resistin Concentrations in Overweight or Obese Otherwise Healthy Adults: A Pilot Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091258
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
Adipokines play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously shown that carnosine supplementation in overweight or obese non-diabetic individuals improves glucose metabolism but does not change adiponectin concentrations. However, its effect on other adipokines has not been investigated.
[...] Read more.
Adipokines play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously shown that carnosine supplementation in overweight or obese non-diabetic individuals improves glucose metabolism but does not change adiponectin concentrations. However, its effect on other adipokines has not been investigated. Herein we further determined the effect of carnosine supplementation on serum adipsin, resistin and leptin. Twenty-two overweight or obese otherwise healthy adults were randomly assigned to receive either 2 g of carnosine (n = 13) or identically looking placebo (n = 9) for 12 weeks. Serum adipsin, leptin and resistin were analyzed using a bead-based multiplex assay. Carnosine supplementation decreased serum resistin concentrations compared to placebo (mean change from baseline: −35 ± 83 carnosine vs. 35 ± 55 ng/mL placebo, p = 0.04). There was a trend for a reduction in serum leptin concentrations after carnosine supplementation (−76 ± 165 ng/mL carnosine vs. 20 ± 28 ng/mL placebo, p = 0.06). The changes in leptin and resistin concentrations were inversely related to the change in concentration for urinary carnosine (r = −0.72, p = 0.0002; r = −0.67, p = 0.0009, respectively), carnosine-propanal (r = −0.56, p = 0.005; r = −0.63, p = 0.001, respectively) and carnosine-propanol (r = −0.61, p = 0.002; r = −0.60, p = 0.002, respectively). There were no differences between groups in change in adipsin concentrations. Our findings show carnosine supplementation may normalize some, but not all, of the serum adipokine concentrations involved in glucose metabolism, in overweight and obese individuals. Further clinical trials with larger samples are needed to confirm these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplement Use among U.S. Children by Family Income, Food Security Level, and Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Status in 2011–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091212
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
This analysis characterizes use of dietary supplements (DS) and motivations for DS use among U.S. children (≤18 years) by family income level, food security status, and federal nutrition assistance program participation using the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. About one-third
[...] Read more.
This analysis characterizes use of dietary supplements (DS) and motivations for DS use among U.S. children (≤18 years) by family income level, food security status, and federal nutrition assistance program participation using the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. About one-third (32%) of children used DS, mostly multivitamin-minerals (MVM; 24%). DS and MVM use were associated with higher family income and higher household food security level. DS use was lowest among children in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; 20%) and those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC; 26%) compared to both income-eligible and income-ineligible nonparticipants. Most children who used DS took only one (83%) or two (12%) products; although children in low-income families took fewer products than those in higher income families. The most common motivations for DS and MVM use were to “improve (42% or 46%)” or “maintain (34 or 38%)” health, followed by “to supplement the diet (23 or 24%)” for DS or MVM, respectively. High-income children were more likely to use DS and MVM “to supplement the diet” than middle- or low-income children. Only 18% of child DS users took DS based on a health practitioner’s recommendation. In conclusion, DS use was lower among children who were in low-income or food-insecure families, or families participating in nutrition assistance programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle The Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use Among Elementary, Junior High, and High School Students: A Nationwide Survey in Japan
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091176
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
The prevalence of dietary supplement use, such as vitamins, minerals, or fish oil, has increased among children in Japan; however, whether children are using dietary supplements appropriately remains unclear. This study aimed to determine dietary supplement use among children. In August 2017, a
[...] Read more.
The prevalence of dietary supplement use, such as vitamins, minerals, or fish oil, has increased among children in Japan; however, whether children are using dietary supplements appropriately remains unclear. This study aimed to determine dietary supplement use among children. In August 2017, a nationwide internet preliminary survey of 265,629 mothers aged from 25 to 59 years old was undertaken. Of these, 19,041 mothers of children attending either elementary school, junior high school, or high school were selected. Among them, 16.4% were currently providing their children with dietary supplements and 5.2% had previously given dietary supplements to their children. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was higher in boys than in girls, and the prevalence increased according to their grade. A total of 2439 participants were eligible to undertake a targeted survey on dietary supplement use. Dietary supplements were being taken to maintain health, supplement nutrients, and enhance growth in both boys and girls, and many children (37.5%) were provided with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mothers mainly obtained information concerning dietary supplements via the internet, and supplements were purchased in drug stores or via the internet. The prevalence of dietary supplement use in mothers was 65.4% and may be associated with the prevalence rates in children. Some mothers reported adverse events (3.6%) in their children, such as stomachache, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and constipation. The cause-and-effect relationships for adverse events were not clear, but some children were given products for adults. Children are more influenced by dietary supplements compared to adults. To prevent adverse events due to inappropriate use, parental education concerning dietary supplements is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessArticle Bioavailability of a Novel Form of Microencapsulated Bovine Lactoferrin and Its Effect on Inflammatory Markers and the Gut Microbiome: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081115
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Bovine lactoferrin, extracted from milk or whey, is used in a range of products to enhance immunity and support digestive health, iron absorption, and homeostasis. This study examined the absorption and effect of Progel (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) microencapsulated bovine lactoferrin (InferrinTM,
[...] Read more.
Bovine lactoferrin, extracted from milk or whey, is used in a range of products to enhance immunity and support digestive health, iron absorption, and homeostasis. This study examined the absorption and effect of Progel (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) microencapsulated bovine lactoferrin (InferrinTM, Bega Bionutrients, Victoria, Australia) on immune markers and the microbiome. A double-blind randomised, cross-over trial was conducted with 12 healthy males randomised to one of two doses, equivalent to 200 mg or 600 mg lactoferrin, for two four-week supplementation arms, with a two-week washout period. Subjects received either standard bovine lactoferrin or InferrinTM for each arm. Baseline and post each trial arm, CD69+ activation on CD4+ and CD8+ cells was analysed, bovine and human lactoferrin contents of faecal and serum samples were reported, and the gut microbiome was analysed using 16S sequencing and metagenomic sequencing. The mean level of CD69+ activation on the CD4+ cells was lower after supplementation regardless of the form or dose of lactoferrin. This was statistically significant for the 200 mg dose. A higher level of bovine lactoferrin was found post-supplementation in those taking InferrinTM, although this was not statistically significant. Changes in phylum-level microbial community profiling were detected post-supplementation in the second trial arm, particularly in those receiving InferrinTM. Metagenomic sequencing showed changes in the volumes of the top 100 species of bacteria present before and after all treatment arms. Results suggest that lactoferrin supplementation may have beneficial effects on the microbiome and immune system, and that the use of InferrinTM improves absorption. Larger detailed studies are needed to ascertain the potential positive effects of bovine lactoferrin supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplement Use Differs by Socioeconomic and Health-Related Characteristics among U.S. Adults, NHANES 2011–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081114
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of use and types of dietary supplements (DS) used by U.S. adults (≥19 years) by sociodemographic characteristics: family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR), food security status, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation using NHANES
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of use and types of dietary supplements (DS) used by U.S. adults (≥19 years) by sociodemographic characteristics: family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR), food security status, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation using NHANES 2011–2014 data (n = 11,024). DS use was ascertained via a home inventory and a retrospective 30-day questionnaire. Demographic and socioeconomic differences related to DS use were evaluated using a univariate t statistic. Half of U.S. adults (52%) took at least one DS during a 30-day period; multivitamin-mineral (MVM) products were the most commonly used (31%). DS and MVM use was significantly higher among those with a household income of ≥ 350% of the poverty level, those who were food secure, and SNAP income-ineligible nonparticipants across all sex, age, and race/ethnic groups. Among women, prevalence of use significantly differed between SNAP participants (39%) and SNAP income-eligible nonparticipants (54%). Older adults (71+ years) remained the highest consumers of DS, specifically among the highest income group (82%), while younger adults (19–30 years), predominantly in the lowest income group (28%), were the lowest consumers. Among U.S. adults, DS use and the types of products consumed varied with income, food security, and SNAP participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessArticle Supplement Use and Dietary Sources of Folate, Vitamin D, and n-3 Fatty Acids during Preconception: The GLIMP2 Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080962
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
An adequate nutritional status during the preconception period is important, particularly for folate, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids (i.e., EPA+DHA). We aimed to determine supplement intake and the main dietary sources of folate, vitamin D, and EPA+DHA using the data of
[...] Read more.
An adequate nutritional status during the preconception period is important, particularly for folate, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids (i.e., EPA+DHA). We aimed to determine supplement intake and the main dietary sources of folate, vitamin D, and EPA+DHA using the data of 66 Dutch women aged 18–40 years who wished to become pregnant. Additionally, associations of these intakes with their blood levels were examined. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, and supplement use with a structured questionnaire. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined in serum and folate and phospholipid EPA+DHA levels in plasma. Partial Spearman’s correlations, restricted cubic splines and trend analyses over tertiles of nutrient intakes were performed to examine intake-status associations. A large proportion of women did not meet the Dutch recommended intakes of folate (50%), vitamin D (67%), and EPA+DHA (52%). Vegetables were the main contributor to dietary folate intake (25%), oils and fats to dietary vitamin D intake (39%), and fish to dietary EPA+DHA intake (69%). Fourteen percent of the women had an inadequate folate status and 23% an inadequate vitamin D status. Supplemental folate intake, supplemental and dietary vitamin D intake and dietary EPA+DHA intake were significantly associated with their blood levels. In conclusion, even in our highly educated population, a large proportion did not achieve recommended folate, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acid intakes. Promotion of folate and vitamin D supplement use and fish consumption is needed to improve intakes and blood levels of these nutrients in women who wish to become pregnant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Long-Term Xanthophyll and Anthocyanin Supplementation on Lutein and Zeaxanthin Serum Concentrations and Macular Pigment Optical Density in Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080959
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Xanthophylls (lutein, L; zeaxanthin, Z) and anthocyanins are often included in food supplements to improve ocular health. There are no dietary reference intakes for them. The aim was to assess the effects of L, Z and anthocyanin supplementation on short and long-term lutein
[...] Read more.
Xanthophylls (lutein, L; zeaxanthin, Z) and anthocyanins are often included in food supplements to improve ocular health. There are no dietary reference intakes for them. The aim was to assess the effects of L, Z and anthocyanin supplementation on short and long-term lutein status markers (serum concentration and macular pigment optical density (MPOD)). Seventy-two postmenopausal women were randomized into a parallel study of 8 months: Group A—anthocyanines (60 mg/day); Group X—xanthophylls (6 mg L + 2 mg Z/day); Group X+A—anthocyanines (60 mg/day) + xanthophylls (6 mg L + 2 mg Z/day). At the beginning of the study, 4 and 8 month serum L and Z concentrations were determined (HPLC), as well as L, Z and anthocyanine dietary intake and MPOD (heterochromic flicker photometry). Baseline concentrations of L (0.35 ± 0.19 μmol/L), Z (0.11 ± 0.05 μmol/L), L+Z/cholesterol/triglycerides (0.07 ± 0.04 μmol/mmol) increased in Group X (2.8- and 1.6-fold in L and Z concentrations) and in group XA (2- and 1.4-fold in L and Z concentrations). MPOD (baseline: 0.32 ± 0.13 du) was not modified in any of the groups at the end of the study. There were no differences in the dietary intake of L+Z and anthocyanin at any point in time in any group. Supplementation of L and Z at a dietary level provoked an increase in their serum concentration that was not modified by simultaneous supplementation with anthocyanins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Information and Educational Messages on Outer Packaging of Micronutrient Powders Distributed in Indonesia Increase Caregiver Knowledge and Adherence to Recommended Use
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060747
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of improved information and educational messages on outer packaging of a micronutrient powder (MNP), locally known as “Taburia”, on knowledge and adherence to recommended use. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of improved information and educational messages on outer packaging of a micronutrient powder (MNP), locally known as “Taburia”, on knowledge and adherence to recommended use. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 1149 caregivers and their children aged 6–36 months. Caregiver–child dyads were randomized by their villages to receive 30 sachets of Taburia with the: (i) original outer packaging; (ii) improved outer packaging; or (iii) improved outer packaging combined with cooking demonstrations. Adherence to Taburia use was assessed through caregiver interviews and observation of unused sachets during home visits; “high” adherence was defined as consuming 13–17 sachets in the previous month. Data collection included surveys and focus groups discussions. The majority of caregivers (>80%) preferred the improved packaging because it was more attractive and contained more comprehensive information. Caregivers who received the improved packaging had better knowledge regarding the recommended use of Taburia (p < 0.001) and higher adherence with the prescribed use of Taburia (43% with “high” adherence) (p < 0.001) than those who received the original packaging (29% with “high” adherence). Caregivers who participated in cooking demonstrations generally had better knowledge regarding the benefits of Taburia and recommended use, but this did not lead to higher adherence to recommended use. “Underconsumption” of Taburia (≤7 sachets) was much less prevalent than “overconsumption” (≥23 sachets), and original packaging users were more likely to consume Taburia daily instead of every two days as recommended. We conclude that the design of the outer packaging and comprehensiveness of information provided are important influencers of recommended MNP use by caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective Effects of Insect Extracts in an Animal Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060735
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Insects represent the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth and are potential food and drug resources. Recently, we have demonstrated that a Forsythia viridissima extract prevented free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation in an in vitro cellular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
[...] Read more.
Insects represent the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth and are potential food and drug resources. Recently, we have demonstrated that a Forsythia viridissima extract prevented free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation in an in vitro cellular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of extracts of the insects Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis Kolbe, 1886 (PB), Oxya chinensis sinuosa Mishchenko, 1951 (OC), and Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer, 1773 (GB) in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD animal model, as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The effects of the supplementation with PB, OC, and GB extracts were evaluated histopathologically and histochemically. PB, OC, and GB extract supplementation inhibited the HFD-induced increase in body weight and body fat mass and ameliorated other adverse changes, resulting in decreased liver function parameters, lower serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and increased serum adiponectin levels. The expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid droplet accumulation and in fatty acid uptake also decreased upon treatment of HFD-fed mice with the extracts. These results provide evidence of the protective effects of the PB, OC, and GB extracts against HFD-induced fatty liver disease in an animal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Leucine Supplementation Does Not Attenuate Skeletal Muscle Loss during Leg Immobilization in Healthy, Young Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050635
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Short successive periods of physical inactivity occur throughout life and contribute considerably to the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. The maintenance of muscle mass during brief periods of disuse is required to prevent functional decline and maintain metabolic health. Objective: To
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Background: Short successive periods of physical inactivity occur throughout life and contribute considerably to the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. The maintenance of muscle mass during brief periods of disuse is required to prevent functional decline and maintain metabolic health. Objective: To assess whether daily leucine supplementation during a short period of disuse can attenuate subsequent muscle loss in vivo in humans. Methods: Thirty healthy (22 ± 1 y) young males were exposed to a 7-day unilateral knee immobilization intervention by means of a full leg cast with (LEU, n = 15) or without (CON, n = 15) daily leucine supplementation (2.5 g leucine, three times daily). Prior to and directly after immobilization, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (computed tomography (CT) scan) and leg strength (one-repetition maximum (1-RM)) were assessed. Furthermore, muscle biopsies were taken in both groups before and after immobilization to assess changes in type I and type II muscle fiber CSA. Results: Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) declined in the CON and LEU groups (p < 0.01), with no differences between the two groups (from 7712 ± 324 to 7287 ± 305 mm2 and from 7643 ± 317 to 7164 ± 328 mm2; p = 0.61, respectively). Leg muscle strength decreased from 56 ± 4 to 53 ± 4 kg in the CON group and from 63 ± 3 to 55 ± 2 kg in the LEU group (main effect of time p < 0.01), with no differences between the groups (p = 0.052). Type I and II muscle fiber size did not change significantly over time, in both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Free leucine supplementation with each of the three main meals (7.5 g/d) does not attenuate the decline of muscle mass and strength during a 7-day limb immobilization intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle In Silico Investigation of the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo biloba L. on Alzheimer’s Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050589
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
Based on compelling experimental and clinical evidence, Ginkgo biloba L. exerts a beneficial effect in ameliorating mild to moderate dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, although the pharmacological mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, compounds, their putative
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Based on compelling experimental and clinical evidence, Ginkgo biloba L. exerts a beneficial effect in ameliorating mild to moderate dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, although the pharmacological mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, compounds, their putative target proteins identified using an inverse docking approach, and clinically tested AD-related target proteins were systematically integrated together with applicable bioinformatics methods in silico. The results suggested that the beneficial effects of G. biloba on AD may be contributed by the regulation of hormone sensitivity, improvements in endocrine homeostasis, maintenance of endothelial microvascular integrity, and proteolysis of tau proteins, particularly prior to amyloid β-protein (Aβ) plaque formation. Moreover, we identified six putative protein targets that are significantly related to AD, but have not been researched or have had only preliminary studies conducted on the anti-AD effects of G. biloba. These mechanisms and protein targets are very significant for future scientific research. In addition, the existing mechanisms were also verified, such as the reduction of oxidative stress, anti-apoptotic effects, and protective effects against amyloidogenesis and Aβ aggregation. The discoveries summarized here may provide a macroscopic perspective that will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of medicinal plants or dietary supplements, as well as new clues for the future development of therapeutic strategies for AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Chemopreventive Activities of Sulforaphane and Its Metabolites in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050585
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Sulforaphane (SFN) exhibits chemopreventive effects through various mechanisms. However, few studies have focused on the bioactivities of its metabolites. Here, three metabolites derived from SFN were studied, known as sulforaphane glutathione, sulforaphane cysteine and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine. Their effects on cell viability, DNA
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Sulforaphane (SFN) exhibits chemopreventive effects through various mechanisms. However, few studies have focused on the bioactivities of its metabolites. Here, three metabolites derived from SFN were studied, known as sulforaphane glutathione, sulforaphane cysteine and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine. Their effects on cell viability, DNA damage, tumorigenicity, cell migration and adhesion were measured in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and their anti-angiogenetic effects were determined in a 3D co-culture model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and pericytes. Results indicated that these metabolites at high doses decreased cancer cell viability, induced DNA damage and inhibited motility, and impaired endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Additionally, pre-treatment with low doses of SFN metabolites protected against H2O2 challenge. The activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and the induction of intracellular glutathione (GSH) played an important role in the cytoprotective effects of SFN metabolites. In conclusion, SFN metabolites exhibited similar cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects to SFN, which proves the necessity to study the mechanisms of action of not only SFN but also of its metabolites. Based on the different tissue distribution profiles of these metabolites, the most relevant chemical forms can be selected for targeted chemoprevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Selenium Analysis and Speciation in Dietary Supplements Based on Next-Generation Selenium Ingredients
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101466
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Selenium is essential for humans and the deficit of Se requires supplementation. In addition to traditional forms such as Se salts, amino acids, or selenium-enriched yeast supplements, next-generation selenium supplements, with lower risk for excess supplementation, are emerging. These are based on selenium
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Selenium is essential for humans and the deficit of Se requires supplementation. In addition to traditional forms such as Se salts, amino acids, or selenium-enriched yeast supplements, next-generation selenium supplements, with lower risk for excess supplementation, are emerging. These are based on selenium forms with lower toxicity, higher bioavailability, and controlled release, such as zerovalent selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) and selenized polysaccharides (SPs). This article aims to focus on the existing analytical systems for the next-generation Se dietary supplement, providing, at the same time, an overview of the analytical methods available for the traditional forms. The next-generation dietary supplements are evaluated in comparison with the conventional/traditional ones, as well as the analysis and speciation methods that are suitable to reveal which Se forms and species are present in a dietary supplement. Knowledge gaps and further research potential in this field are highlighted. The review indicates that the methods of analysis of next-generation selenium supplements should include a step related to chemical species separation. Such a step would allow a proper characterization of the selenium forms/species, including molecular mass/dimension, and substantiates the marketing claims related to the main advantages of these new selenium ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview Nutraceutical Approach to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): The Available Clinical Evidence
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091153
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical condition characterized by lipid infiltration of the liver, highly prevalent in the general population affecting 25% of adults, with a doubled prevalence in diabetic and obese patients. Almost 1/3 of NAFLD evolves in Non-Alcoholic SteatoHepatitis
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical condition characterized by lipid infiltration of the liver, highly prevalent in the general population affecting 25% of adults, with a doubled prevalence in diabetic and obese patients. Almost 1/3 of NAFLD evolves in Non-Alcoholic SteatoHepatitis (NASH), and this can lead to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. However, the main causes of mortality of patients with NAFLD are cardiovascular diseases. At present, there are no specific drugs approved on the market for the treatment of NAFLD, and the treatment is essentially based on optimization of lifestyle. However, some nutraceuticals could contribute to the improvement of lipid infiltration of the liver and of the related anthropometric, haemodynamic, and/or biochemical parameters. The aim of this paper is to review the available clinical data on the effect of nutraceuticals on NAFLD and NAFLD-related parameters. Relatively few nutraceutical molecules have been adequately studied for their effects on NAFLD. Among these, we have analysed in detail the effects of silymarin, vitamin E, vitamin D, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-3 series, astaxanthin, coenzyme Q10, berberine, curcumin, resveratrol, extracts of Salvia milthiorriza, and probiotics. In conclusion, Silymarin, vitamin E and vitamin D, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-3 series, coenzyme Q10, berberine and curcumin, if well dosed and administered for medium–long periods, and associated to lifestyle changes, could exert positive effects on NAFLD and NAFLD-related parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview Brain Health across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review on the Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081094
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
The brain is the most significant and complex organ of the human body. Increasingly, we are becoming aware that certain nutrients may help to safeguard brain health. An expanse of research has investigated the effects of omega fatty acids in relation to brain
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The brain is the most significant and complex organ of the human body. Increasingly, we are becoming aware that certain nutrients may help to safeguard brain health. An expanse of research has investigated the effects of omega fatty acids in relation to brain health but effects across the lifespan have not been widely evaluated. The present systematic review collated evidence from 25 randomized controlled trials (n = 3633) published since 2013. Compared with control groups, omega-3 supplementation generally correlated with improvements in blood biomarkers. Subsequently, these appear to benefit those with lower baseline fatty acid levels, who are breastfeeding or who have neuropsychiatric conditions. Whilst multiple studies indicate that omega fatty acids can protect against neurodegeneration in older adults, more work is needed in the years preceding the diagnosis of such medical conditions. Bearing in mind the scale of ageing populations and rising healthcare costs linked to poor brain health, omega supplementation could be a useful strategy for helping to augment dietary intakes and support brain health across the lifespan. Ongoing research is now needed using harmonious methodologies, supplement dosages, ratios and intervention periods to help formulate congruent conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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