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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Supplement Use Differs by Socioeconomic and Health-Related Characteristics among U.S. Adults, NHANES 2011–2014

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 700 W. State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements, 6100 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-7517, USA
School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA
Department of Statistics, Purdue University, 250 N. University St., West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah, 250 South 850 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1114;
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of use and types of dietary supplements (DS) used by U.S. adults (≥19 years) by sociodemographic characteristics: family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR), food security status, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation using NHANES 2011–2014 data (n = 11,024). DS use was ascertained via a home inventory and a retrospective 30-day questionnaire. Demographic and socioeconomic differences related to DS use were evaluated using a univariate t statistic. Half of U.S. adults (52%) took at least one DS during a 30-day period; multivitamin-mineral (MVM) products were the most commonly used (31%). DS and MVM use was significantly higher among those with a household income of ≥ 350% of the poverty level, those who were food secure, and SNAP income-ineligible nonparticipants across all sex, age, and race/ethnic groups. Among women, prevalence of use significantly differed between SNAP participants (39%) and SNAP income-eligible nonparticipants (54%). Older adults (71+ years) remained the highest consumers of DS, specifically among the highest income group (82%), while younger adults (19–30 years), predominantly in the lowest income group (28%), were the lowest consumers. Among U.S. adults, DS use and the types of products consumed varied with income, food security, and SNAP participation. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary supplements; nutrients; NHANES; income; SNAP dietary supplements; nutrients; NHANES; income; SNAP
MDPI and ACS Style

Cowan, A.E.; Jun, S.; Gahche, J.J.; Tooze, J.A.; Dwyer, J.T.; Eicher-Miller, H.A.; Bhadra, A.; Guenther, P.M.; Potischman, N.; Dodd, K.W.; Bailey, R.L. Dietary Supplement Use Differs by Socioeconomic and Health-Related Characteristics among U.S. Adults, NHANES 2011–2014. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1114.

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