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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101447

Further Evidence on Efficacy of Diet Supplementation with Fatty Acids in Ocular Pathologies: Insights from the EAE Model of Optic Neuritis

1
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, via San Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa, Italy
2
Interdepartmental Research Center Nutrafood ‘‘Nutraceuticals and Food for Health’’, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Firenze, Italy
4
Sooft Italia SpA, Contrada Molino 17, 63833 Montegiorgio (FM), Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Abstract

In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of optic neuritis, we recently demonstrated that diet supplementation with a balanced mixture of fatty acids (FAs), including omega 3 and omega 6, efficiently limited inflammatory events in the retina and prevented retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, although mechanisms underlying the efficacy of FAs were to be elucidated. Whether FAs effectiveness was accompanied by efficient rescue of demyelinating events in the optic nerve was also unresolved. Finally, the possibility that RGC rescue might result in ameliorated visual performance remained to be investigated. Here, the EAE model of optic neuritis was used to investigate mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of FAs, including their potential efficacy on macrophage polarization. In addition, we determined how FAs-induced rescue of RGC degeneration was related to optic nerve histopathology by performing ultrastructural morphometric analysis with transmission electron microscopy. Finally, RGC rescue was correlated with visual performance by recording photopic electroretinogram, an efficient methodology to unravel the role of RGCs in the generation of electroretinographic waves. We conclude that the ameliorative effects of FAs were dependent on a predominant anti-inflammatory action including a role on promoting the shift of macrophages from the inflammatory M1 phenotype towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. This would finally result in restored optic nerve histopathology and ameliorated visual performance. These findings can now offer new perspectives for implementing our knowledge on the effectiveness of diet supplementation in counteracting optic neuritis and suggest the importance of FAs as possible adjuvants in therapies against inflammatory diseases of the eye. View Full-Text
Keywords: optic neuritis; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; neuroinflammation; macrophage polarization; demyelination; photopic ERG. optic neuritis; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; neuroinflammation; macrophage polarization; demyelination; photopic ERG.
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Locri, F.; Cammalleri, M.; Pini, A.; Dal Monte, M.; Rusciano, D.; Bagnoli, P. Further Evidence on Efficacy of Diet Supplementation with Fatty Acids in Ocular Pathologies: Insights from the EAE Model of Optic Neuritis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1447.

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