Special Issue "Advances in the Nutrition of Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dimitrios G. Goulis
Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: male reproductive endocrinology; female reproductive endocrinology; endocrine complications of pregnancy; menopause; research methodology
Dr. Maria G. Grammatikopoulou

Guest Editor
Department of Nutritional Sciences & Dietetics, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: evidence-based nutrition; nutritional guidelines; epidemiology; nutrition methodology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrition constitutes one of the cornerstones for the therapy of diabetes mellitus (DM). All types of DM require proper nutritional education, management, and audit. Nutritional status and dietary intake are established as contributors to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In addition, adherence to specific dietary regimes has been suggested to reverse DM, indicating that the role of nutrition extends beyond secondary prevention. The research on the effect of medical nutrition therapy on DM is longstanding and continuous, aiming to identify nutritional factors that could improve patient outcomes.

This Special Issue of Nutrients is focusing on the association between nutrition and all types of DM. It is designed to discuss contemporary issues that are of keen interest to both nutritionists and diabetologists. Its aim is to aggregate novel research and revisit older issues in one volume, bringing together nutritionists, dietitians, clinicians, and other health professionals, while presenting high-quality evidence and updating the existing perspective on nutrition and DM. Authors are invited to submit their work, including original research, reviews, meta-research, and opinion papers, showcasing important issues governing DM and nutrition.

We are looking forward to your submissions.

Prof. Dimitrios G. Goulis
Dr. Maria G. Grammatikopoulou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dietary assessment
  • glucose
  • body weight
  • clinical trials
  • pregnancy
  • gestational diabetes
  • type 2 diabetes
  • type 1 diabetes
  • dietary intervention
  • diet therapy
  • medical nutrition therapy
  • lifestyle intervention

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Cardiorespiratory Fitness Predicted by Fibrinogen and Leptin Concentrations in Children with Obesity and Risk for Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study and a ROC Curve Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020674 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. The ability to exercise is affected by adiposity, and this mechanism involves low-grade chronic inflammation and homeostatic stress produced mainly in adipocytes, which can result in abnormal adipokine [...] Read more.
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. The ability to exercise is affected by adiposity, and this mechanism involves low-grade chronic inflammation and homeostatic stress produced mainly in adipocytes, which can result in abnormal adipokine secretion. To date, the gold standard for cardiorespiratory fitness assessment is considered to be the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of hematological parameters of childhood obesity, as potential predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), using a sample of children and adolescents with obesity and risk for diabetes. A total of 84 clinically healthy children and adolescents were recruited, of which 21 were considered lean, 22 overweight and 41 obese, with a mean age of 12.0 ± 1.9, 11.4 ± 2.0, and 11.2 ± 2.1 years old, in each weight status category, respectively. Age and sex did not differ between groups. Hematologic testing was performed after 12 h of fasting including glucose, serum lipids, insulin, hc-CRP, adiponectin, leptin and fibrinogen levels. Cardiorespiratory capacity for exercise was assessed to determine VO2max, using a cycle ergometer. The VO2max was negatively correlated with progressive strength to the BMIz (−0.656, p ≤ 0.001), hs-CRP (r = −0.341, p ≤ 0.002), glucose (r = −0.404, p ≤ 0.001) and insulin levels (r = −0.348, p ≤ 0.001), the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = −0.345, p ≤ 0.002), as well as to the leptin (r = −0.639, p ≤ 0.001) and fibrinogen concentrations (r = −0.520, p ≤ 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that only leptin and fibrinogen concentrations could predict the VO2max adjusted for the BMIz of participants. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the diagnostic accuracy of leptin, hs-CRP and fibrinogen concentrations for the prediction of VO2max revealed a good diagnostic ability for all parameters, with leptin being the most promising one (area under the curve (AUC): 99%). The results verify that in children with obesity, VO2max may be predicted from hematological parameters (leptin and fibrinogen), possibly bypassing more invasive methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Nutrition of Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Reported Adherence to the 2019 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Indicating the Need for Improved Nutrition Education and Diet Care
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113516 - 15 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Patient adherence to guidelines is important for improved outcomes and prognosis. Nevertheless, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not comply with the recommendations regarding medication, physical activity, diet or self-care. The present cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of [...] Read more.
Patient adherence to guidelines is important for improved outcomes and prognosis. Nevertheless, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not comply with the recommendations regarding medication, physical activity, diet or self-care. The present cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of adherence to the dietary recommendations issued by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) among patients with T2DM in Komotini, Greece. A total of 162 adults with T2DM (64.7 ± 10.6 years old), of which 41.4% were men, were recruited from the Sismanoglio Hospital and participated in the study. The level of adherence to individual recommendations issued by the ADA was assessed using yes/no questions. The overall adherence rate to the guidelines was low (41.2%). According to the multivariable analysis, age and medication therapy were identified as contributors to the compliance rate. No differences were noted in the total compliance rate between patients of different religious denominations (Muslims/Christians). Patients on oral antidiabetic agents (OAA) were more adherent compared with those on insulin therapy. A mere 3.7% of the participants had received nutrition education by a registered dietitian, 9.9% were following an individualized diet plan to improve glycemia, and 3.1% had set specific energy goals to reduce body weight. These findings are indicative of the need for the delivery of improved nutrition education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Nutrition of Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Mediterranean Diet-Based Nutritional Intervention on the Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Other Maternal-Fetal Adverse Events in Hispanic Women Residents in Spain
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113505 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most frequent morbidity found in pregnancy, and it increases the risk for several maternal-fetal complications. Hispanic women are considered at high risk. The St. Carlos GDM prevention study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted from 2016–2017. [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most frequent morbidity found in pregnancy, and it increases the risk for several maternal-fetal complications. Hispanic women are considered at high risk. The St. Carlos GDM prevention study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted from 2016–2017. Normoglycemic women were randomized at 12–14 Gestation week (WG) to an intervention group (IG) receiving recommendations based on the MedDiet (supplemented with ExtraVirgin Olive Oil/pistachios), or to a control group (CG), recommended to limit fat intake. After RCT conclusion, IG recommendations were applied to a real-world group (RW) in routine clinical practice. The primary endpoint of the current study is an assessment of the GDM rate in Hispanic participants of the aforementioned studies: 132 RCT, 128 CT, 284 RW participants. The GDM rate was lower in IG: 19/128(14.8%), p = 0.021, and RW: 38/284(13.4%), p = 0.029) than in CG: 34/132(25.8%). Adjusted RR (95%CI) for GDM: 0.72 (0.50–0.97), p = 0.037 in IG and 0.77 (0.61–0.97), p = 0.008 in RW. Rates of urinary tract infections, emergency caesarean-sections and perineal trauma were also lower in IG and RW. Other adverse outcomes were lower in IG vs. CG. In conclusion, a MedDiet-based intervention reduces the rate of GDM and several adverse maternal-fetal outcomes in Hispanic women residing in Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Nutrition of Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Genetically Guided Mediterranean Diet for the Personalized Nutritional Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020355 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
The current consensus for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is that high-quality diets and adherence to a healthy lifestyle provide significant health benefits. Remarkably, however, there is little agreement on the proportions of macronutrients in the diet that [...] Read more.
The current consensus for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is that high-quality diets and adherence to a healthy lifestyle provide significant health benefits. Remarkably, however, there is little agreement on the proportions of macronutrients in the diet that should be recommended to people suffering from pre-diabetes or T2DM. We herein discuss emerging evidence that underscores the importance of gene-diet interactions in the improvement of glycemic biomarkers in T2DM. We propose that we can achieve better glycemic control in T2DM patients by coupling Mediterranean diets to genetic information as a predictor for optimal diet macronutrient composition in a personalized manner. We provide evidence to support this concept by presenting a case study of a T2DM patient who achieved rapid glycemic control when adhered to a personalized, genetically-guided Mediterranean Diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Nutrition of Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes)
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