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Open AccessReview

Effects and Mechanisms of Tea Regulating Blood Pressure: Evidences and Promises

by Daxiang Li 1,2,†, Ruru Wang 1,2,†, Jinbao Huang 1,2, Qingshuang Cai 1,2, Chung S. Yang 2,3, Xiaochun Wan 1,2 and Zhongwen Xie 1,2,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, School of Tea and Food Sciences and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
2
International Joint Laboratory on Tea Chemistry and Health Effects of Ministry of Education, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
3
Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8020, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051115
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension)
Cardiovascular diseases have overtaken cancers as the number one cause of death. Hypertension is the most dangerous factor linked to deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases. Many researchers have reported that tea has anti-hypertensive effects in animals and humans. The aim of this review is to update the information on the anti-hypertensive effects of tea in human interventions and animal studies, and to summarize the underlying mechanisms, based on ex-vivo tissue and cell culture data. During recent years, an increasing number of human population studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of tea on hypertension. However, the optimal dose has not yet been established owing to differences in the extent of hypertension, and complicated social and genetic backgrounds of populations. Therefore, further large-scale investigations with longer terms of observation and tighter controls are needed to define optimal doses in subjects with varying degrees of hypertensive risk factors, and to determine differences in beneficial effects amongst diverse populations. Moreover, data from laboratory studies have shown that tea and its secondary metabolites have important roles in relaxing smooth muscle contraction, enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reducing vascular inflammation, inhibiting rennin activity, and anti-vascular oxidative stress. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of these activities remain to be elucidated. View Full-Text
Keywords: tea secondary metabolites; hypertension; endothelial function; inflammation tea secondary metabolites; hypertension; endothelial function; inflammation
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Li, D.; Wang, R.; Huang, J.; Cai, Q.; Yang, C.S.; Wan, X.; Xie, Z. Effects and Mechanisms of Tea Regulating Blood Pressure: Evidences and Promises. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1115.

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