Arterial hypertension is strongly related to overweight and obesity. In obese subjects, several mechanisms may lead to hypertension such as insulin and leptin resistance, perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction, renal impairment, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system activation and sympathetic nervous system activity. Weight loss (WL) seems to have positive effects on blood pressure (BP). The aim of this review was to explain the mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension and to evaluate the main studies assessing the effect of WL on BP. We analysed studies published in the last 10 years (13 studies either interventional or observational) showing the effect of WL on BP. Different WL strategies were taken into account—diet and lifestyle modification, pharmacological intervention and bariatric surgery. Although a positive effect of WL could be identified in each study, the main difference seems to be the magnitude and the durability of BP reduction over time. Nevertheless, further follow-up data are needed: there is still a lack of evidence about long term effects of WL on hypertension. Hence, given the significant results obtained in several recent studies, weight management should always be pursued in obese patients with hypertension.
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