Nutrition is known to exert an undeniable impact on blood pressure with especially salt (sodium chloride), but also potassium, playing a prominent role. The aim of this review was to summarize meta-analyses studying the effect of different electrolytes on blood pressure or risk for hypertension, respectively. Overall, 32 meta-analyses evaluating the effect of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium on human blood pressure or hypertension risk were included after literature search. Most of the meta-analyses showed beneficial blood pressure lowering effects with the extent of systolic blood pressure reduction ranging between −0.7 (95% confidence interval: −2.6 to 1.2) to −8.9 (−14.1 to −3.7) mmHg for sodium/salt reduction, −3.5 (−5.2 to −1.8) to −9.5 (−10.8 to −8.1) mmHg for potassium, and −0.2 (−0.4 to −0.03) to −18.7 (−22.5 to −15.0) mmHg for magnesium. The range for diastolic blood pressure reduction was 0.03 (−0.4 to 0.4) to −5.9 (−9.7 to −2.1) mmHg for sodium/salt reduction, −2 (−3.1 to −0.9) to −6.4 (−7.3 to −5.6) mmHg for potassium, and −0.3 (−0.5 to −0.03) to −10.9 (−13.1 to −8.7) mmHg for magnesium. Moreover, sufficient calcium intake was found to reduce the risk of gestational hypertension.
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