Accumulating evidence suggests a potential role of dietary protein among nutritional factors interfering with the regulation of blood pressure. Dietary protein source (plant versus animal protein), and especially, protein composition in terms of amino acids has been postulated to interfere with mechanisms underlying the development of hypertension. Recently, mounting interest has been directed at amino acids in hypertension focusing on habitual dietary intake and their circulating levels regardless of single amino acid dietary supplementation. The aim of the present review was to summarize epidemiological evidence concerning the connection between amino acids and hypertension. Due to the large variability in methodologies used for assessing amino acid levels and heterogeneity in the results obtained, it was not possible to draw robust conclusions. Indeed, some classes of amino acids or individual amino acids showed non-causative association with blood pressure as well as the incidence of hypertension, but the evidence was far from being conclusive. Further research should be prompted for a thorough understanding of amino acid effects and synergistic actions of different amino acid classes on blood pressure regulation.
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