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Sodium Intake and Hypertension

IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Cardiology Unit, 20100 Milan, Italy
IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
Chair of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20100 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 1970;
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension)
The close relationship between hypertension and dietary sodium intake is widely recognized and supported by several studies. A reduction in dietary sodium not only decreases the blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension, but is also associated with a reduction in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Prolonged modest reduction in salt intake induces a relevant fall in blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, irrespective of sex and ethnic group, with larger falls in systolic blood pressure for larger reductions in dietary salt. The high sodium intake and the increase in blood pressure levels are related to water retention, increase in systemic peripheral resistance, alterations in the endothelial function, changes in the structure and function of large elastic arteries, modification in sympathetic activity, and in the autonomic neuronal modulation of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we have focused on the effects of sodium intake on vascular hemodynamics and their implication in the pathogenesis of hypertension. View Full-Text
Keywords: arterial stiffness; endothelial function; hypertension; salt-sensitivity; salt intake; sodium intake; sympathetic activity arterial stiffness; endothelial function; hypertension; salt-sensitivity; salt intake; sodium intake; sympathetic activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grillo, A.; Salvi, L.; Coruzzi, P.; Salvi, P.; Parati, G. Sodium Intake and Hypertension. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1970.

AMA Style

Grillo A, Salvi L, Coruzzi P, Salvi P, Parati G. Sodium Intake and Hypertension. Nutrients. 2019; 11(9):1970.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grillo, Andrea, Lucia Salvi, Paolo Coruzzi, Paolo Salvi, and Gianfranco Parati. 2019. "Sodium Intake and Hypertension" Nutrients 11, no. 9: 1970.

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