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Mechanisms Involved in the Relationship between Low Calcium Intake and High Blood Pressure

1
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Surveillance of Drugs, Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1121, Argentina
2
Bone Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Rosario National University, Rosario, Santa Fe 3100, Argentina
3
Instituto de Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediátricas “Prof. Dr. Fernando E. Viteri” Hospital de Niños “Sor María Ludovica de La Plata (IDIP), Ministerio de Salud/Comisión de Investigacines Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, La Plata, Buenos Aires 1900, Argentina
4
Department of Mother and Child Health Research, Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS-CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1414, Argentina
5
Departamento de Salud, Universidad Nacional de La Matanza, Florencio Varela, San Justo 1903, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051112
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake and Hypertension)
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Abstract

There is increasing epidemiologic and animal evidence that a low calcium diet increases blood pressure. The aim of this review is to compile the information on the link between low calcium intake and blood pressure. Calcium intake may regulate blood pressure by modifying intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells and by varying vascular volume through the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. Low calcium intake produces a rise of parathyroid gland activity. The parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscles resulting in vasoconstriction. Parathyroidectomized animals did not show an increase in blood pressure when fed a low calcium diet as did sham-operated animals. Low calcium intake also increases the synthesis of calcitriol in a direct manner or mediated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcitriol increases intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells. Both low calcium intake and PTH may stimulate renin release and consequently angiotensin II and aldosterone synthesis. We are willing with this review to promote discussions and contributions to achieve a better understanding of these mechanisms, and if required, the design of future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium intake; blood pressure; parathyroid function; vitamin D; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system calcium intake; blood pressure; parathyroid function; vitamin D; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
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Villa-Etchegoyen, C.; Lombarte, M.; Matamoros, N.; Belizán, J.M.; Cormick, G. Mechanisms Involved in the Relationship between Low Calcium Intake and High Blood Pressure. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1112.

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