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Special Issue "Iron Intake and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gladys Oluyemisi Latunde-Dada

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: iron; nutrition; metabolism; absorption

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Iron is an essential micronutrient that is important for cellular and physiological processes, such as respiration, energy metabolism, replication, and gene regulation. Dietary iron is absorbed principally from the proximal duodenum in a regulated process that modulates iron homeostasis since iron excretion is not regulated in humans. Iron in foods is present in two forms, heme (meat types) and non-heme (vegetables and cereals). Recent publications have revealed iron bioavailability data on novel food products, new oral iron supplements or iron biofortifed foods that are safe and less toxic to the gut. Moreover, food processing procedures such as micro-milling or food encapsulation are employed to influence luminal bioaccessibilty and iron absorption from foods. Furthermore, gut microflora have emerged as important entities that modify food matrices, metabolites and modulate iron absorption in distal gut region. While the mechanism of heme iron absorption is still not resolved, intake and absorption of non-heme iron involve a regulated interplay of an apical ferrireduction, ferrous ion absorption by DMT1 symporter, abluminal efflux by ferroportin and ferroxidation by haphaestin. This intestinal transit machinery is regulated by transcriptional Hif-2α activation, post-transcriptional IRP-IRE binding and the post-translational inhibitory mechanism by hepcidin. Emerging evidence in recent years is, however, alluding to the modulation of the transport machinery by luminal bioactive ingredients or dietary constituents. Moreover, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are common in chronic diseases with increased inflammation and hepcidin levels that result in a reduced iron intake and subsequently systemic iron deficiency. In contrast, genetic diseases such as mutation in genes that regulate hepcidin and ferroportin expression lead to inappropriately low hepcidin levels that promote iron absorption and result in iron overload.

Dr. Gladys Oluyemisi Latunde-Dada
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Iron
  • Intake
  • Processing
  • Bioavailability

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Iron Deficiency and Neuroendocrine Regulators of Basal Metabolism, Body Composition and Energy Expenditure in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030631
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Although dietary iron is a determinant of iron status in animals, body fat mass has been reported to have an inverse association with iron status in human studies. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between Fe homeostasis, body composition, [...] Read more.
Although dietary iron is a determinant of iron status in animals, body fat mass has been reported to have an inverse association with iron status in human studies. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between Fe homeostasis, body composition, energy expenditure and neuroendocrine regulators for severe Fe-deficiency anaemia. Forty male Wistar albino rats recently weaned were divided at random into two groups: the control group was fed the basal diet, AIN-93G diet (normal-Fe) and the anaemic group received a low-Fe diet for 40 days. Neuroendocrine parameters that regulate basal metabolism and appetite (thyroid hormones, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon, insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone), body composition, respiratory volumes, energy expenditure, haematological and biochemical were assessed. Total body fat was lower, whereas lean mass, free and total water were higher in the anemic group. O2 consumption, CO2 production, energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were lower in the Fe-deficient animals. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine hormones decreased, while thyroid-stimulating hormone increased in the anemic group. Circulating levels of ghrelin were lower in the anemic group, while GIP, glucagon, insulin, corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were higher. Fe-deficiency impairs weight gain in the rats, with marked reductions in lean mass and body fat, indicating lower energy stores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Intake and Human Health)
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Iron Transport from Ferrous Bisglycinate and Ferrous Sulfate in DMT1-Knockout Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030485
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
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Abstract
This experiment was conducted to investigate the transport characteristics of iron from ferrous bisglycinate (Fe-Gly) in intestinal cells. The divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-knockout Caco-2 cell line was developed by Crispr-Cas9, and then the cells were treated with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) [...] Read more.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the transport characteristics of iron from ferrous bisglycinate (Fe-Gly) in intestinal cells. The divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-knockout Caco-2 cell line was developed by Crispr-Cas9, and then the cells were treated with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) or Fe-Gly to observe the labile iron pool and determine their iron transport. The results showed that the intracellular labile iron increased significantly with Fe-Gly or FeSO4 treatment, and this phenomenon was evident over a wide range of time and iron concentrations in the wild-type cells, whereas in the knockout cells it increased only after processing with high concentrations of iron for a long time (p < 0.05). DMT1-knockout suppressed the synthesis of ferritin and inhibited the response of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1) and IRP-2 to these two iron sources. The expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was not altered by knockout or iron treatment. Interestingly, the expression of zinc-regulated transporter (ZRT) and iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein 14 (Zip14) was elevated significantly by knockout and iron treatment in wild-type cells (p < 0.05). These results indicated that iron from Fe-Gly was probably mainly transported into enterocytes via DMT1 like FeSO4; Zip14 may play a certain role in the intestinal iron transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Total and Nonheme Dietary Iron Intake Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Chinese Men and Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111663
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
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Abstract
The causal relationship between serum ferritin and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains inconclusive. Dietary iron intake increases serum ferritin. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of total, heme, and nonheme dietary iron intake with MetS and its components in men and [...] Read more.
The causal relationship between serum ferritin and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains inconclusive. Dietary iron intake increases serum ferritin. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of total, heme, and nonheme dietary iron intake with MetS and its components in men and women in metropolitan China. Data from 3099 participants in the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) obtained during 2012–2013 were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h diet records from 3 consecutive days. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations of dietary iron intake with MetS and its components. After adjustment for potential confounders as age, sex, income, physical exercise, smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake, a positive trend was observed across quartiles of total iron intake and risk of MetS (p for trend = 0.022). Compared with the lowest quartile of total iron intake (<12.72 mg/day), the highest quartile (≥21.88 mg/day) had an odds ratio (95% confidence interval), OR (95% CI), of 1.59 (1.15,2.20). In addition, the highest quartile of nonheme iron intake (≥20.10 mg/day) had a 1.44-fold higher risk of MetS compared with the lowest quartile (<11.62 mg/day), and higher risks of MetS components were associated with the third quartiles of total and nonheme iron intake. There was no association between heme iron intake and risk of MetS (p for trend = 0.895). Associations for total and nonheme iron intake with MetS risk were found in men but not in women. Total and nonheme dietary iron intake was found to be positively associated with MetS and its components in the adult population in metropolitan China. This research also revealed a gender difference in the association between dietary iron intake and MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Iron (II) Citrate Complex as a Food Supplement: Synthesis, Characterization and Complex Stability
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111647
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
Iron deficiency represents a widespread problem for a large part of the population, especially for women, and has received increasing attention in food/supplement research. The contraindications of the iron supplements commercially available (e.g., imbalances in the levels of other essential nutrients, low bioavailability, [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency represents a widespread problem for a large part of the population, especially for women, and has received increasing attention in food/supplement research. The contraindications of the iron supplements commercially available (e.g., imbalances in the levels of other essential nutrients, low bioavailability, etc.) led us to search for a possible alternative. In the present work, a rapid and easy method to synthetize a solid iron (II) citrate complex from iron filings and citric acid was developed to serve, eventually, as a food supplement or additive. In order to state its atomic composition and purity, an assortment of analytical techniques was employed (e.g., combustion analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffractometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, etc.). Results demonstrate that the synthesized crystalline solid corresponds to the formula FeC6H6O7∙H2O and, by consequence, contains exclusively iron (II), which is an advantage with respect to existing commercial products, because iron (II) is better absorbed than iron (III) (high bioavailability of iron). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Intake and Human Health)
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