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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111663

Total and Nonheme Dietary Iron Intake Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Chinese Men and Women

1
National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China
2
Division of Health Risk Factors Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 West Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 20036, China
3
Division of Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 West Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 20036, China
4
Department of Profession Management, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 West Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 20036, China
5
Department of Public Health, Shanghai Xuhui District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 50 Yongchuan Road, Shanghai 200237, China
6
Department of Public Health, Shanghai Jiading District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 264 Tacheng Road, Shanghai 201800, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Intake and Human Health)
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Abstract

The causal relationship between serum ferritin and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains inconclusive. Dietary iron intake increases serum ferritin. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of total, heme, and nonheme dietary iron intake with MetS and its components in men and women in metropolitan China. Data from 3099 participants in the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) obtained during 2012–2013 were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h diet records from 3 consecutive days. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations of dietary iron intake with MetS and its components. After adjustment for potential confounders as age, sex, income, physical exercise, smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake, a positive trend was observed across quartiles of total iron intake and risk of MetS (p for trend = 0.022). Compared with the lowest quartile of total iron intake (<12.72 mg/day), the highest quartile (≥21.88 mg/day) had an odds ratio (95% confidence interval), OR (95% CI), of 1.59 (1.15,2.20). In addition, the highest quartile of nonheme iron intake (≥20.10 mg/day) had a 1.44-fold higher risk of MetS compared with the lowest quartile (<11.62 mg/day), and higher risks of MetS components were associated with the third quartiles of total and nonheme iron intake. There was no association between heme iron intake and risk of MetS (p for trend = 0.895). Associations for total and nonheme iron intake with MetS risk were found in men but not in women. Total and nonheme dietary iron intake was found to be positively associated with MetS and its components in the adult population in metropolitan China. This research also revealed a gender difference in the association between dietary iron intake and MetS. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary iron intake; heme iron; nonheme iron; metabolic syndrome; population-based study dietary iron intake; heme iron; nonheme iron; metabolic syndrome; population-based study
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Zhu, Z.; Wu, F.; Lu, Y.; Wu, C.; Wang, Z.; Zang, J.; Guo, C.; Jia, X.; Yao, J.; Peng, H.; He, Y.; Sun, J.; Huang, J.; Ding, G. Total and Nonheme Dietary Iron Intake Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Chinese Men and Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1663.

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