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Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111647

Iron (II) Citrate Complex as a Food Supplement: Synthesis, Characterization and Complex Stability

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Cintia, 4, 80126 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Medical Center, Piazzale Luigi Cadorna, 9, 20123 Milan, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Intake and Human Health)
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Abstract

Iron deficiency represents a widespread problem for a large part of the population, especially for women, and has received increasing attention in food/supplement research. The contraindications of the iron supplements commercially available (e.g., imbalances in the levels of other essential nutrients, low bioavailability, etc.) led us to search for a possible alternative. In the present work, a rapid and easy method to synthetize a solid iron (II) citrate complex from iron filings and citric acid was developed to serve, eventually, as a food supplement or additive. In order to state its atomic composition and purity, an assortment of analytical techniques was employed (e.g., combustion analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffractometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, etc.). Results demonstrate that the synthesized crystalline solid corresponds to the formula FeC6H6O7∙H2O and, by consequence, contains exclusively iron (II), which is an advantage with respect to existing commercial products, because iron (II) is better absorbed than iron (III) (high bioavailability of iron). View Full-Text
Keywords: iron citrate (II); food supplement; nutraceuticals; iron deficiency; anaemia iron citrate (II); food supplement; nutraceuticals; iron deficiency; anaemia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Naviglio, D.; Salvatore, M.M.; Limatola, M.; Langella, C.; Faralli, S.; Ciaravolo, M.; Andolfi, A.; Salvatore, F.; Gallo, M. Iron (II) Citrate Complex as a Food Supplement: Synthesis, Characterization and Complex Stability. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1647.

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