Special Issue "High-Fat High-Saturated Diet"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Macronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Frederic Capel
Website
Guest Editor
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UNH, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
Interests: omega 3 fatty acids; muscle; adipose tissue; lipotoxicity; metabolic syndrome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary fat quality is a major determinant of several physiological, biochemical and molecular processes in the body and tissues. As a source of energy, lipids are mainly stored in fat cells and within lipid droplets (LD) in oxidative and steroidogenic tissues, but significant amounts are also found in cell membranes where their structural role is crucial for membrane protein functions and the control of cellular functions. Differential effects have been identified between different types of Fatty Acids (FA) on inflammatory and metabolic diseases during obesity or in response to physical exercise and chronic diseases. All the tissues and organs of the body are concerned. The most recent dietary guidelines advise that lipids should represent 35% of the daily energy intake in order to prevent deleterious effects of high glycaemic index carbohydrates and deficiency in essential fatty acids. Hence, the prevalence of obesity could rise dramatically despite a fall in total fat intake. Advice is more focused on the improvement of the quality of fat than on the reduction of total fat intake. Dietary fat sources provide a mixture of saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Although some controversies exist, most institutional dietary guidelines claim that the consumption of SFA should be limited to the expense of MUFA and PUFA as a nutritional strategy for the prevention of chronic diseases and the lipotoxic effect of some lipid derivates. The role of dietary SFA and MUFA in cardiometabolic risk remains controversial in the scientific community. This field still needs interventional and fundamental investigations to identify key lipid mediators involved in biological abnormalities and the underlying mechanisms. You are invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that bring new elements into this topic.

Dr. Frederic Capel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Fatty acid
  • metabolism
  • high fat diet
  • metabolism
  • nutrition
  • obesity
  • metabolic syndrome
  • lipotoxicity

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Interplay of Dietary Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Impacts Brain Mitochondria and Insulin Action
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051518 (registering DOI) - 23 May 2020
Abstract
Overconsumption of high-fat and cholesterol-containing diets is detrimental for metabolism and mitochondrial function, causes inflammatory responses and impairs insulin action in peripheral tissues. Dietary fatty acids can enter the brain to mediate the nutritional status, but also to influence neuronal homeostasis. Yet, it [...] Read more.
Overconsumption of high-fat and cholesterol-containing diets is detrimental for metabolism and mitochondrial function, causes inflammatory responses and impairs insulin action in peripheral tissues. Dietary fatty acids can enter the brain to mediate the nutritional status, but also to influence neuronal homeostasis. Yet, it is unclear whether cholesterol-containing high-fat diets (HFDs) with different combinations of fatty acids exert metabolic stress and impact mitochondrial function in the brain. To investigate whether cholesterol in combination with different fatty acids impacts neuronal metabolism and mitochondrial function, C57BL/6J mice received different cholesterol-containing diets with either high concentrations of long-chain saturated fatty acids or soybean oil-derived poly-unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, CLU183 neurons were stimulated with combinations of palmitate, linoleic acid and cholesterol to assess their effects on metabolic stress, mitochondrial function and insulin action. The dietary interventions resulted in a molecular signature of metabolic stress in the hypothalamus with decreased expression of occludin and subunits of mitochondrial electron chain complexes, elevated protein carbonylation, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Palmitate caused mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resistance, while cholesterol and linoleic acid did not cause functional alterations. Finally, we defined insulin receptor as a novel negative regulator of metabolically stress-induced JNK activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Fat High-Saturated Diet)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of a High-Fat Diet on the Fatty Acid Composition in the Hearts of Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030824 - 20 Mar 2020
Abstract
The Western diet can lead to alterations in cardiac function and increase cardiovascular risk, which can be reproduced in animal models by implementing a high-fat diet (HFD). However, the mechanism of these alterations is not fully understood and may be dependent on alterations [...] Read more.
The Western diet can lead to alterations in cardiac function and increase cardiovascular risk, which can be reproduced in animal models by implementing a high-fat diet (HFD). However, the mechanism of these alterations is not fully understood and may be dependent on alterations in heart lipid composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an HFD on the fatty acid (FA) composition of total lipids, as well as of various lipid fractions in the heart, and on heart function. C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD or standard laboratory diet. The FA composition of chow, serum, heart and skeletal muscle tissues was measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Cardiac function was evaluated by ultrasonography. Our results showed an unexpected increase in polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) and a significant decrease in monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) in the heart tissue of mice fed the HFD. For comparison, no such effects were observed in skeletal muscle or serum samples. Furthermore, we found that the largest increase in PUFAs was in the sphingolipid fraction, whereas the largest decrease in MUFAs was in the phospholipid and sphingomyelin fractions. The hearts of mice fed an HFD had an increased content of triacylglycerols. Moreover, the HFD treatment altered aortic flow pattern. We did not find significant changes in heart mass or oxidative stress markers between mice fed the HFD and standard diet. The above results suggest that alterations in FA composition in the heart may contribute to deterioration of heart function. A possible mechanism of this phenomenon is the alteration of sphingolipids and phospholipids in the fatty acid profile, which may change the physical properties of these lipids. Since phospho- and sphingolipids are the major components of cell membranes, alterations in their structures in heart cells can result in changes in cell membrane properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Fat High-Saturated Diet)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of High Fat Diets and Liver Peptidase Activity in the Development of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Wistar Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030636 - 28 Feb 2020
Abstract
High-fat diets (HFD) have been widely associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders and overweight. However, a high intake of sources that are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids has been suggested as a dietary agent that is able to positively influence energy [...] Read more.
High-fat diets (HFD) have been widely associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders and overweight. However, a high intake of sources that are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids has been suggested as a dietary agent that is able to positively influence energy metabolism and vascular function. The main objective of this study was to analyze the role of dietary fats on hepatic peptidases activities and metabolic disorders. Three diets: standard (S), HFD supplemented with virgin olive oil (VOO), and HFD supplemented with butter plus cholesterol (Bch), were administered over six months to male Wistar rats. Plasma and liver samples were collected for clinical biochemistry and aminopeptidase activities (AP) analysis. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also determined by Western blot in liver samples. The diet supplement with VOO did not induce obesity, in contrast to the Bch group. Though the VOO diet increased the time that was needed to return to the basal levels of plasma glucose, the fasting insulin/glucose ratio and HOMA2-%B index (a homeostasis model index of insulin secretion and valuation of β-cell usefulness (% β-cell secretion)) were improved. An increase of hepatic membrane-bound dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity was found only in VOO rats, even if no differences in fasting plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were obtained. Both HFDs induced changes in hepatic pyroglutamyl-AP in the soluble fraction, but only the Bch diet increased the soluble tyrosyl-AP. Angiotensinase activities that are implicated in the metabolism of angiotensin II (AngII) to AngIV increased in the VOO diet, which was in agreement with the higher activity of insulin-regulated-AP (IRAP) in this group. Otherwise, the diet that was enriched with butter increased soluble gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and Leucyl-AP, iNOS expression in the liver, and plasma NO. In summary, VOO increased the hepatic activity of AP that were related to glucose metabolism (DPP4, angiotensinases, and IRAP). However, the Bch diet increased activities that are implicated in the control of food intake (Tyrosine-AP), the index of hepatic damage (Leucine-AP and GGT), and the expression of hepatic iNOS and plasma NO. Taken together, these results support that the source of fat in the diet affects several peptidases activities in the liver, which could be related to alterations in feeding behavior and glucose metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Fat High-Saturated Diet)
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Caloric Restriction Attenuates Obesity-Induced Pro-inflammatory Response in Male Rhesus Macaques
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020511 - 18 Feb 2020
Abstract
White adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy is an essential hallmark of obesity and is associated with the activation of resident immune cells. While the benefits of caloric restriction (CR) on health span are generally accepted, its effects on WAT physiology are not well understood. [...] Read more.
White adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy is an essential hallmark of obesity and is associated with the activation of resident immune cells. While the benefits of caloric restriction (CR) on health span are generally accepted, its effects on WAT physiology are not well understood. We previously demonstrated that short-term CR reverses obesity in male rhesus macaques exposed to a high-fat Western-style diet (WSD). Here, we analyzed subcutaneous WAT biopsies collected from this cohort of animals before and after WSD and following CR. This analysis showed that WSD induced adipocyte hypertrophy and inhibited β-adrenergic-simulated lipolysis. CR reversed adipocyte hypertrophy, but WAT remained insensitive to β-adrenergic agonist stimulation. Whole-genome transcriptional analysis revealed that β3-adrenergic receptor and de novo lipogenesis genes were downregulated by WSD and remained downregulated after CR. In contrast, WSD-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression was effectively reversed by CR. Furthermore, peripheral blood monocytes isolated during the CR period exhibited a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to those obtained after WSD. Collectively, this study demonstrates that short-term CR eliminates an obesity-induced pro-inflammatory response in WAT and peripheral monocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Fat High-Saturated Diet)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1.  Frederic Capel
affiliation: Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UNH, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
tentative title: Dietary fat quality in the body and tissues
2. Adriana Mika
affiliation: University of Gdansk | UG · Environmental Analysis/Faculty of Chemistry
tentative title: Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism in Subjects with Morbid Obesity
3. Nikolaus Netzer
affiliation: Faculty of Psychology and Sportscience University Innsbruck
tentative title: Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat
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