Special Issue "Grains and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Stuart Johnson Website E-Mail
Agriculture and Food, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Interests: grains, sorghum, and pulses; grains and chronic disease; grains and nutraceuticals; grains and novel biomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Grains play a major role in the diets of people from around the globe, providing energy and a wide range of essential nutrients and beneficial healthy phytochemicals. Recently, great interest has been paid to several aspects of nutrition related to grain consumption. These include low carbohydrate diets; gluten free foods; whole grains and health; and remerging “ancient” grains, pulses, and pseudo-cereals. I strongly encourage you to submit your most recent advances in these and related areas of grains and health, with the prospect of presenting a cutting-edge and fascinating update on this important topic in this very Special Issue. Thanking you in anticipation.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Stuart Johnson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Grains
  • Pulses
  • Pseudocereals
  • Gluten-free
  • Low carbohydrate diet
  • Whole grains
  • Ancient grains
  • Phytochemicals

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Germinated Pigmented Rice “Superjami” on the Glucose Level, Antioxidant Defense System, and Bone Metabolism in Menopausal Rat Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092184 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
Women experience physical, mental, and social changes during menopause. It is important to maintain a healthy diet for effective menopause management. The effect of germinated Superjami, a deep violet colored rice cultivar, on the body weight, glucose level, antioxidant defense system, and bone [...] Read more.
Women experience physical, mental, and social changes during menopause. It is important to maintain a healthy diet for effective menopause management. The effect of germinated Superjami, a deep violet colored rice cultivar, on the body weight, glucose level, antioxidant defense system, and bone metabolism in a menopausal rat model was investigated. The animals were randomly divided into three groups and fed with a normal diet (ND), a control diet supplemented with 20% (w/w) non-germinated Superjami flour (NGSF), or germinated Superjami flour (GSF) for eight weeks. The NGSF and GSF groups exhibited significantly lower body weight and fat, glucose and insulin contents, adipokine concentrations, and bone resorption biomarker levels, and higher antioxidant enzyme activities and 17-β-estradiol content than the ND group (p < 0.05). The GSF group showed greater glucose homeostasis, antioxidative, and bone metabolism-improving effects compared with the NGSF group. These findings demonstrate that germination could further improve the health-promoting properties of Superjami and that this germinated pigmented rice cultivar could be useful in the treatment and management of menopause-induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and bone turnover imbalance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grains and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Djulis (Chenopodium Formosanum) Prevents Colon Carcinogenesis via Regulating Antioxidative and Apoptotic Pathways in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092168 - 10 Sep 2019
Abstract
Djulis is a cereal crop rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber that may have nutraceutical activity to prevent colon cancer. This study was designed to examine the preventive effect of djulis on colon carcinogenesis in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Rats were fed [...] Read more.
Djulis is a cereal crop rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber that may have nutraceutical activity to prevent colon cancer. This study was designed to examine the preventive effect of djulis on colon carcinogenesis in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Rats were fed different AIN-93G-based diets: groups N and DMH were fed AIN-93G diet and groups LD, MD, and HD were fed AIN-93G diet containing 5, 10, and 20% djulis, respectively. All rats except for group N were injected with DMH to induce colon carcinogenesis. After 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed and colon and liver tissues were collected for analysis. The results showed that djulis-treated rats had significantly lower numbers of colonic preneoplastic lesions, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sialomucin-producing (SIM)-ACF, and mucin-depleted foci. Djulis treatment increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in colon and liver. Djulis also reduced p53, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expressions and increased Bax and caspase-9 expressions. Besides, phenolic compounds and flavonoids were found rich in djulis. These results demonstrate the chemopreventive effect of djulis on carcinogen-induced colon carcinogenesis via regulating antioxidative and apoptotic pathways in rats. Djulis may have the potential to be developed as a valuable cereal product for chemoprevention of colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grains and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Retention of Primary Bile Acids by Lupin Cell Wall Polysaccharides Under In Vitro Digestion Conditions
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092117 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Interference of dietary fibres with the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is proposed as a mechanism for lowering cholesterol. We investigated how lupin hull and cotyledon dietary fibres interact with primary bile acids using an in vitro model under simulated upper gastrointestinal conditions. [...] Read more.
Interference of dietary fibres with the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is proposed as a mechanism for lowering cholesterol. We investigated how lupin hull and cotyledon dietary fibres interact with primary bile acids using an in vitro model under simulated upper gastrointestinal conditions. Cell wall polysaccharides were isolated and extracted to separate pectin-like, hemicellulosic, and lignocellulosic structures. Lupin hull consisted mainly of structural components rich in cellulose. The viscosity of the in vitro digesta of lupin hull was low, showing predominantly liquid-like viscoelastic properties. On the other hand, lupin cotyledon fibre retarded bile acid release due to increased viscosity of the in vitro digesta, which was linked with high contents of pectic polymers forming an entangled network. Molecular interactions with bile acids were not measured for the hull but for the cotyledon, as follows: A total of 1.29 µmol/100 mg DM of chenodesoxycholic acids were adsorbed. Molecular interactions of cholic and chenodesoxycholic acids were evident for lignin reference material but did not account for the adsorption of the lupin cotyledon. Furthermore, none of the isolated and fractionated cell wall materials showed a significant adsorptive capacity, thus disproving a major role of lupin cell wall polysaccharides in bile acid adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grains and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Whole Grain Consumption for the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081769 - 01 Aug 2019
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most common and malignant cancers among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies have indicated the inverse correlation between the intake of whole grains and the incidence of breast cancer. Whole grains are the most fundamental and important food [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the most common and malignant cancers among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies have indicated the inverse correlation between the intake of whole grains and the incidence of breast cancer. Whole grains are the most fundamental and important food source of bioactive phytochemicals, which have well-defined roles in the management of each stage of breast carcinogenesis. To better understand the value of whole grains in future prevention and treatment of breast cancer, the effects and possible mechanisms of six different whole grain cereals, which are the most commonly consumed throughout the world, are introduced in the current review. Moreover, the bioactive compounds extracted from whole grains are adequately formulated and the underlying mechanism of action is illustrated. In addition, the present limitations and future perspective of whole grain consumption for breast cancer are also concluded. The objective of this review is to promote the development of nutraceutical and functional food from whole grains and its application for reducing the risk of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grains and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
The Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Chia Seeds—Current State of Knowledge
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061242 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual herbaceous plant, the seeds of which were consumed already thousands of years ago. Current research results indicate a high nutritive value for chia seeds and confirm their extensive health-promoting properties. Research indicates that components of [...] Read more.
Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an annual herbaceous plant, the seeds of which were consumed already thousands of years ago. Current research results indicate a high nutritive value for chia seeds and confirm their extensive health-promoting properties. Research indicates that components of chia seeds are ascribed a beneficial effect on the improvement of the blood lipid profile, through their hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial and immunostimulatory effects. This article provides a review of the most important information concerning the potential application of chia seeds in food production. The chemical composition of chia seeds is presented and the effect of their consumption on human health is discussed. Technological properties of chia seeds are shown and current legal regulations concerning their potential use in the food industry are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grains and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Sprouted Grains: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020421 - 17 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the last decade, there has been an increase in the use of sprouted grains in human diet and a parallel increase in the scientific literature dealing with their nutritional traits and phytochemical contents. This review examines the physiological and biochemical changes during [...] Read more.
In the last decade, there has been an increase in the use of sprouted grains in human diet and a parallel increase in the scientific literature dealing with their nutritional traits and phytochemical contents. This review examines the physiological and biochemical changes during the germination process, and the effects on final sprout composition in terms of macro- and micro-nutrients and bioactive compounds. The main factors affecting sprout composition are taken into consideration: genotype, environmental conditions experimented by the mother plant, germination conditions. In particular, the review deepens the recent knowledge on the possible elicitation factors useful for increasing the phytochemical contents. Microbiological risks and post-harvest technologies are also evaluated, and a brief summary is given of some important in vivo studies matching with the use of grain sprouts in the diet. All the species belonging to Poaceae (Gramineae) family as well as pseudocereals species are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grains and Human Health)
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