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Open AccessReview

Differential Physiological Responses Elicited by Ancient and Heritage Wheat Cultivars Compared to Modern Ones

1
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
3
Pediatric Unit, Maggiore Hospital, Largo Bartolo Nigrisoli, 2, 40133 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122879
Received: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grains and Human Health)
Although ancient, heritage, and modern wheat varieties appear rather similar from a nutritional point of view, having a similar gluten content and a comparable toxicity linked to their undigested gluten peptide, whenever the role of ancient end heritage wheat grains has been investigated in animal studies or in clinical trials, more anti-inflammatory effects have been associated with the older wheat varieties. This review provides a critical overview of existing data on the differential physiological responses that could be elicited in the human body by ancient and heritage grains compared to modern ones. The methodology used was that of analyzing the results of relevant studies conducted from 2010 through PubMed search, by using as keywords “ancient or heritage wheat”, “immune wheat” (protein or peptides), and immune gluten (protein or peptides). Our conclusion is that, even if we do not know exactly which molecular mechanisms are involved, ancient and heritage wheat varieties have different anti-inflammatory and antioxidant proprieties with respect to modern cultivars. It is, therefore, reasonable to assume that the health proprieties attributed to older cultivars could be related to wheat components which have positive roles in the modulation of intestinal inflammation and/or permeability. View Full-Text
Keywords: ancient and heritage wheat; gluten; immunogenic wheat peptides; gliadins; amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI); celiac disease ancient and heritage wheat; gluten; immunogenic wheat peptides; gliadins; amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI); celiac disease
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Spisni, E.; Imbesi, V.; Giovanardi, E.; Petrocelli, G.; Alvisi, P.; Valerii, M.C. Differential Physiological Responses Elicited by Ancient and Heritage Wheat Cultivars Compared to Modern Ones. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2879.

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