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Effect of Germinated Pigmented Rice “Superjami” on the Glucose Level, Antioxidant Defense System, and Bone Metabolism in Menopausal Rat Model

International Agricultural Training Center, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Plus, Kyungpook National University Daegu 41566, Korea
Institute of Life and Environment, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2184;
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grains and Human Health)
Women experience physical, mental, and social changes during menopause. It is important to maintain a healthy diet for effective menopause management. The effect of germinated Superjami, a deep violet colored rice cultivar, on the body weight, glucose level, antioxidant defense system, and bone metabolism in a menopausal rat model was investigated. The animals were randomly divided into three groups and fed with a normal diet (ND), a control diet supplemented with 20% (w/w) non-germinated Superjami flour (NGSF), or germinated Superjami flour (GSF) for eight weeks. The NGSF and GSF groups exhibited significantly lower body weight and fat, glucose and insulin contents, adipokine concentrations, and bone resorption biomarker levels, and higher antioxidant enzyme activities and 17-β-estradiol content than the ND group (p < 0.05). The GSF group showed greater glucose homeostasis, antioxidative, and bone metabolism-improving effects compared with the NGSF group. These findings demonstrate that germination could further improve the health-promoting properties of Superjami and that this germinated pigmented rice cultivar could be useful in the treatment and management of menopause-induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and bone turnover imbalance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Superjami; menopause; antioxidant; hyperglycemia; bone turnover Superjami; menopause; antioxidant; hyperglycemia; bone turnover
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Chung, S.I.; Ham, T.-H.; Kang, M.Y. Effect of Germinated Pigmented Rice “Superjami” on the Glucose Level, Antioxidant Defense System, and Bone Metabolism in Menopausal Rat Model. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2184.

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