Special Issue "Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Krzysztof Szczepanowicz
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Guest Editor
Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences Niezapominajek 8, PL - 30239 Krakow, Poland
Interests: Nanomaterials, nanomedicine, polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, drug delivery, targeted therapy, passive, active and physical targeting, theranostics, imaging, metallic nanoparticles, layer by layer, anticancer therapy, neurodegenerative disorders, physical chemistry, surface modification

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Continued advancements in nanotechnology are expanding the boundaries of medical research, most notably as a drug delivery system for anticancer treatment. Application of nanotechnology in the delivery of therapeutic as well as imaging agents can offer greater control over their biodistribution, usually toxic compounds, to improve the therapeutic index. Controlling materials at the nanoscale offers the opportunity to develop medicines with precisely engineered functions in the body. The design of the majority of therapeutic and imaging agents delivery system hugely relies on nanoparticles. Because nanoparticles can exhibit high surface to volume ratios, unique optical properties, tunable shapes, and/or modifiable surfaces, they provide a mechanism for controlling the transport of various therapeutic cargo, within the body, both temporally and spatially.

The application of nanoscale materials in medicine, generally termed nanomedicine, has become mainstream. Nanomedicine is a field of research with huge expectations for the development of personalized medicine based on new nanoparticles. The use of nanoparticles in targeted drug delivery may overcome many intractable health challenges.

We invite researchers to contribute original and review articles regarding the functional polymeric nanoparticles. Potential topics include, but are not limited to: synthesis, modification, and functionalization of nanoparticles, encapsulation of actives, nanoparticles’ characterization and characterization methods, application of nanoparticles as drug carriers, targeted drug delivery systems, passive, active and physical targeting theranostics, formulating new nanomaterials, in vitro and in vivo studies on nanoparticulate systems.

Dr. Krzysztof Szczepanowicz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nanomaterials
  • nanomedicine
  • polymeric nanoparticles
  • drug delivery
  • targeted therapy
  • passive
  • active and physical targeting
  • theranostics
  • imaging
  • functionalization

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Encapsulation of Large-Size Plasmids in PLGA Nanoparticles for Gene Editing: Comparison of Three Different Synthesis Methods
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102723 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 133
Abstract
The development of new gene-editing technologies has fostered the need for efficient and safe vectors capable of encapsulating large nucleic acids. In this work we evaluate the synthesis of large-size plasmid-loaded PLGA nanoparticles by double emulsion (considering batch ultrasound and microfluidics-assisted methodologies) and [...] Read more.
The development of new gene-editing technologies has fostered the need for efficient and safe vectors capable of encapsulating large nucleic acids. In this work we evaluate the synthesis of large-size plasmid-loaded PLGA nanoparticles by double emulsion (considering batch ultrasound and microfluidics-assisted methodologies) and magnetic stirring-based nanoprecipitation synthesis methods. For this purpose, we characterized the nanoparticles and compared the results between the different synthesis processes in terms of encapsulation efficiency, morphology, particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential and structural integrity of loaded pDNA. Our results demonstrate particular sensibility of large pDNA for shear and mechanical stress degradation during double emulsion, the nanoprecipitation method being the only one that preserved plasmid integrity. However, plasmid-loaded PLGA nanoparticles synthesized by nanoprecipitation did not show cell expression in vitro, possibly due to the slow release profile observed in our experimental conditions. Strong electrostatic interactions between the large plasmid and the cationic PLGA used for this synthesis may underlie this release kinetics. Overall, none of the methods evaluated satisfied all the requirements for an efficient non-viral vector when applied to large-size plasmid encapsulation. Further optimization or alternative synthesis methods are thus in current need to adapt PLGA nanoparticles as delivery vectors for gene editing therapeutic technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles)
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Article
Chitosan-Coated PLGA Nanoparticles Loaded with Peganum harmala Alkaloids with Promising Antibacterial and Wound Healing Activities
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092438 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Wound healing is a major healthcare concern, and complicated wounds may lead to severe outcomes such as septicemia and amputations. To date, management choices are limited, which warrants the search for new potent wound healing agents. Natural products loaded in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a major healthcare concern, and complicated wounds may lead to severe outcomes such as septicemia and amputations. To date, management choices are limited, which warrants the search for new potent wound healing agents. Natural products loaded in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coated with chitosan (CS) constitute a promising antibacterial wound healing formulation. In this work, harmala alkaloid-rich fraction (HARF) loaded into PLGA nanoparticles coated with chitosan (H/CS/PLGA NPs) were designed using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Optimization of the formulation variables (HARF: PLGA and CS: PLGA weight ratios, sonication time) was performed using the 33 Box–Behnken design (BBD). The optimal NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The prepared NPs had an average particle size of 202.27 ± 2.44 nm, a PDI of 0.23 ± 0.01, a zeta potential of 9.22 ± 0.94 mV, and an entrapment efficiency of 86.77 ± 4.18%. In vitro drug release experiments showed a biphasic pattern where an initial burst of 82.50 ± 0.20% took place in the first 2 h, which increased to 87.50 ± 0.50% over 72 h. The designed optimal H/CS/PLGA NPs exerted high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MIC of 0.125 and 0.06 mg/mL, respectively) compared to unloaded HARF (MIC of 0.50 mg/mL). The prepared nanoparticles were found to be biocompatible when tested on human skin fibroblasts. Moreover, the wound closure percentage after 24 h of applying H/CS/PLGA NPs was found to be 94.4 ± 8.0%, compared to free HARF and blank NPs (68.20 ± 5.10 and 50.50 ± 9.40%, respectively). In conclusion, the three components of the developed nanoformulation (PLGA, chitosan, and HARF) have synergistic antibacterial and wound healing properties for the management of infected wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles)
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Article
Novel Surface-Modified Bilosomes as Functional and Biocompatible Nanocarriers of Hybrid Compounds
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122472 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
In the present contribution, we demonstrate a new approach for functionalization of colloidal nanomaterial consisting of phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol-based vesicular systems modified by FDA-approved biocompatible components, i.e., sodium cholate hydrate acting as a biosurfactant and Pluronic P123—a symmetric triblock copolymer comprising poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and [...] Read more.
In the present contribution, we demonstrate a new approach for functionalization of colloidal nanomaterial consisting of phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol-based vesicular systems modified by FDA-approved biocompatible components, i.e., sodium cholate hydrate acting as a biosurfactant and Pluronic P123—a symmetric triblock copolymer comprising poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) blocks Eight novel bilosome formulations were prepared using the thin-film hydration method followed by sonication and extrusion in combination with homogenization technique. The optimization studies involving the influence of the preparation technique on the nanocarrier size (dynamic light scattering), charge (electrophoretic light scattering), morphology (transmission electron microscopy) and kinetic stability (backscattering profiles) revealed the most promising candidate for the co-loading of model active compounds of various solubility; namely, hydrophilic methylene blue and hydrophobic curcumin. The studies of the hybrid cargo encapsulation efficiency (UV-Vis spectroscopy) exhibited significant potential of the formulated bilosomes in further biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, including drug delivery, anticancer treatment or diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles)
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Article
Effective Detection of Nafion®-Based Theranostic Nanocapsules Through 19F Ultra-Short Echo Time MRI
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112127 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
The application of the Three-Dimensional Ultra-Short Echo Time (3D UTE)pulse sequence at a high magnetic field for visualization of the distribution of 19F loaded theranostic core-shell nanocapsules with Nafion® (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethene; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-2- [1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-3-(1,2,2-trifluoroethenoxy)propan-2-yl] oxyethanesulfonic acid) incorporated into the shell is presented. The [...] Read more.
The application of the Three-Dimensional Ultra-Short Echo Time (3D UTE)pulse sequence at a high magnetic field for visualization of the distribution of 19F loaded theranostic core-shell nanocapsules with Nafion® (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethene; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-2- [1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-3-(1,2,2-trifluoroethenoxy)propan-2-yl] oxyethanesulfonic acid) incorporated into the shell is presented. The nanocarriers were formed via the layer-by-layer technique with biodegradable polyelectrolytes: PLL (Poly-L-lysine), and with Nafion®: polymer with high 19F content. Before imaging, an MR (magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and T1 and T2 measurements were performed, resulting in values of T2 between 1.3 ms and 3.0 ms, depending on the spectral line. To overcome limitations due to such short T2, the 3D UTE pulse sequence was applied for 19F MR imaging. First Nafion® solutions of various concentrations were measured to check the detection limit of our system for the investigated molecule. Next, the imaging of a phantom containing core-shell nanocapsules was performed to assess the possibility of visualizing their distribution in the samples. Images of Nafion® containing samples with SNR ≥ 5 with acquisition time below 30 min for 19F concentration as low as 1.53 × 10−2 mmol 19F/g of sample, were obtained. This is comparable with the results obtained for molecules, which exhibit more preferable MR characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles)
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Communication
Spontaneous Self-Assembly of Single-Chain Amphiphilic Polymeric Nanoparticles in Water
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102006 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
Single-chain polymeric nanoparticles (SCPNs) have great potential as functional nanocarriers for drug delivery and bioimaging, but synthetic challenges in terms of final yield and purification procedures limit their use. A new concept to modify and improve the synthetic procedures used to generate water-soluble [...] Read more.
Single-chain polymeric nanoparticles (SCPNs) have great potential as functional nanocarriers for drug delivery and bioimaging, but synthetic challenges in terms of final yield and purification procedures limit their use. A new concept to modify and improve the synthetic procedures used to generate water-soluble SCPNs through amphiphilic interactions has been successfully exploited. We developed a new ultrahigh molecular weight amphiphilic polymer containing a hydrophobic poly(epichlorohydrin) backbone and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) side chains. The polymer spontaneously self-assembles into SCPNs in aqueous solution and does not require subsequent purification. The resulting SCPNs possess a number of distinct physical properties, including a uniform hydrodynamic nanoparticle diameter of 10–15 nm, extremely low viscosity and a desirable spherical-like morphology. Concentration-dependent studies demonstrated that stable SCPNs were formed at high concentrations up to 10 mg/mL in aqueous solution, with no significant increase in solution viscosity. Importantly, the SCPNs exhibited high structural stability in media containing serum or phosphate-buffered saline and showed almost no change in hydrodynamic diameter. The combination of these characteristics within a water-soluble SCPN is highly desirable and could potentially be applied in a wide range of biomedical fields. Thus, these findings provide a path towards a new, innovative route for the development of water-soluble SCPNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles)
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Article
Polymeric Core-Shell Nanoparticles Prepared by Spontaneous Emulsification Solvent Evaporation and Functionalized by the Layer-by-Layer Method
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030496 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
The aim of our study was to develop a novel method for the preparation of polymeric core-shell nanoparticles loaded with various actives for biomedical applications. Poly(caprolactone) (PCL), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared using the spontaneous emulsification solvent evaporation (SESE) [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to develop a novel method for the preparation of polymeric core-shell nanoparticles loaded with various actives for biomedical applications. Poly(caprolactone) (PCL), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared using the spontaneous emulsification solvent evaporation (SESE) method. The model active substance, Coumarin-6, was encapsulated into formed polymeric nanoparticles, then they were modified/functionalized by multilayer shells’ formation. Three types of multilayered shells were formed: two types of polyelectrolyte shell composed of biocompatible and biodegradable polyelectrolytes poly-L-lysine hydrobromide (PLL), fluorescently-labeled poly-L-lysine (PLL-ROD), poly-L-glutamic acid sodium salt (PGA) and pegylated-PGA (PGA-g-PEG), and hybrid shell composed of PLL, PGA, and SPIONs (superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles) were used. Multilayer shells were constructed by the saturation technique of the layer-by-layer (LbL) method. Properties of our polymeric core-shell nanoparticle were optimized for bioimaging, passive and magnetic targeting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles)
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