Special Issue "Plasma based Synthesis and Modification of Nanomaterials"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 August 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Pawel Pohl
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Metallurgy, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: hyphenation of chromatographic separation and pre-concentration techniques (LC, HPLC, CE, SPE) with spectrometric methods of detection (ICP-OES, ICP-MS, FAAS, ETAAS, MS/MS) for speciation and fractionation analysis of metals and metalloids; development and application of chemical vapor generation (CVG) techniques for analytical atomic and mass spectrometry; analytical and spectroscopic characteristics of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs); application of CAPPs in biology, medicine and technology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs), driven by direct, alternating or radio frequency current, with liquids has gained a lot of interest in recent years because of the possibility of simple and versatile synthesis of different nanoparticles and nanocrystals, modification of their surfaces, or production of composite nanomaterials and alloys. Indeed, by contrast to conventional liquid phase synthesis methods, APPs operated in or in contact with liquids containing appropriate precursors and stabilizers are viable to produce nanoparticles and other nanoscale materials at ambient conditions in a fast, usually one-stage and scalable way. Minimizing the number of manipulations involved in the synthesis process and enhancing possibility of functionalization and size modification, methodology based on APP operated in different configurations and gases allows to fabricate safe and biocompatible nanomaterials that could be applied in many areas of biology, medicine and technology.In this context, the current Special Issue is dedicated to scientists and researchers dealing with fabrication of new nanoparticles and nanomaterials by APP-based methods and application of these materials in different areas of science and technology. Original research and review articles that seek to new developments in plasma synthesis of nanomaterials are highly welcome. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:·    

  • plasma-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles and nanocrystals in liquid and gas phases along with characterization of structure and morphology of these nanomaterials
  • fabrication of nanoparticles of tunable size and optical properties by controlling experimental conditions of APP-based systems
  • application of APPs for modification of functionality and properties of nanomaterials
  • application of nanometerials fabricated with the aid of plasma-based synthesis methods in biology, medicine and technology.

Prof. Dr. Pawel Pohl
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • atmospheric pressure plasma
  • plasma-liquid interactions
  • plasma synthesis
  • nanoparticles
  • nanomaterials
  • functionalization
  • modification
  • biology
  • environmental engineering
  • medicine

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial
Plasma-Based Synthesis and Modification of Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020278 - 16 Feb 2019
Abstract
This Special Issue of Nanomaterials, including nine original research works [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Pd-Fe System Alloy Nanoparticles by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121068 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
We synthesized Pd-Fe series nanoparticles in solid solution using pulsed plasma in liquid with Pd-Fe bulk mixture electrodes. The Pd-Fe atomic percent ratios were 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1, and the particle size was measured to be less than 10 nm by high-resolution transmission [...] Read more.
We synthesized Pd-Fe series nanoparticles in solid solution using pulsed plasma in liquid with Pd-Fe bulk mixture electrodes. The Pd-Fe atomic percent ratios were 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1, and the particle size was measured to be less than 10 nm by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The nanoparticles showed face-centered cubic structure. The lattice parameter increased with increasing Pd content and followed Vegard’s law, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra were consistent with the ratios of the starting samples, which showed a solid solution state. The solid solution structure and local structure were confirmed by HR-TEM and X-ray absorption fine structure. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Use of Plasma-Synthesized Nano-Catalysts for CO Hydrogenation in Low-Temperature Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Effect of Catalyst Pre-Treatment
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100822 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A study was done on the effect of temperature and catalyst pre-treatment on CO hydrogenation over plasma-synthesized catalysts during the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Nanometric Co/C, Fe/C, and 50%Co-50%Fe/C catalysts with BET specific surface area of ~80 m2 g–1 were tested at [...] Read more.
A study was done on the effect of temperature and catalyst pre-treatment on CO hydrogenation over plasma-synthesized catalysts during the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Nanometric Co/C, Fe/C, and 50%Co-50%Fe/C catalysts with BET specific surface area of ~80 m2 g–1 were tested at a 2 MPa pressure and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 2000 cm3 h−1 g−1 of a catalyst (at STP) in hydrogen-rich FTS feed gas (H2:CO = 2.2). After pre-treatment in both H2 and CO, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the used catalysts shifted from a mono-modal particle-size distribution (mean ~11 nm) to a multi-modal distribution with a substantial increase in the smaller nanoparticles (~5 nm), which was statistically significant. Further characterization was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM with EDX elemental mapping), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The average CO conversion at 500 K was 18% (Co/C), 17% (Fe/C), and 16% (Co-Fe/C); 46%, 37%, and 57% at 520 K; and 85%, 86% and 71% at 540 K respectively. The selectivity of Co/C for C5+ was ~98% with 8% gasoline, 61%, diesel and 28% wax (fractions) at 500 K; 22% gasoline, 50% diesel, and 19% wax at 520 K; and 24% gasoline, 34% diesel, and 11% wax at 540 K, besides CO2 and CH4 as by-products. Fe-containing catalysts manifested similar trends, with a poor conformity to the Anderson–Schulz–Flory (ASF) product distribution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity of Fructose-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Direct Current Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge towards Quarantine Pests
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100751 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Development of efficient plant protection methods against bacterial phytopathogens subjected to compulsory control procedures under international legislation is of the highest concern having in mind expensiveness of enforced quarantine measures and threat of the infection spread in disease-free regions. In this study, fructose-stabilized [...] Read more.
Development of efficient plant protection methods against bacterial phytopathogens subjected to compulsory control procedures under international legislation is of the highest concern having in mind expensiveness of enforced quarantine measures and threat of the infection spread in disease-free regions. In this study, fructose-stabilized silver nanoparticles (FRU-AgNPs) were produced using direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge (dc-APGD) generated between the surface of a flowing liquid anode (FLA) solution and a pin-type tungsten cathode in a continuous flow reaction-discharge system. Resultant spherical and stable in time FRU-AgNPs exhibited average sizes of 14.9 ± 7.9 nm and 15.7 ± 2.0 nm, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that the obtained nanomaterial was composed of Ag while selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicated that FRU-AgNPs had the face-centered cubic crystalline structure. The fabricated FRU-AgNPs show antibacterial properties against Erwinia amylovora, Clavibacter michiganensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Dickeya solani strains with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1.64 to 13.1 mg L−1 and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) from 3.29 to 26.3 mg L−1. Application of FRU-AgNPs might increase the repertoire of available control procedures against most devastating phytopathogens and as a result successfully limit their agricultural impact. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Mediated Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles Stabilized by Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with Application in Heat Management Systems for Internal Combustion Chambers
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080619 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-stabilized Pt nanoparticles (PVP-PtNPs) were produced in a continuous-flow reaction-discharge system by application of direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge (dc-APGD) operated between the surface of a flowing liquid anode (FLA) and a pin-type tungsten cathode. Synthesized PVP-PtNPs exhibited absorption across the entire [...] Read more.
Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-stabilized Pt nanoparticles (PVP-PtNPs) were produced in a continuous-flow reaction-discharge system by application of direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge (dc-APGD) operated between the surface of a flowing liquid anode (FLA) and a pin-type tungsten cathode. Synthesized PVP-PtNPs exhibited absorption across the entire UV/Vis region. The morphology and elemental composition of PVP-PtNPs were determined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray scattering (EDX), respectively. As assessed by TEM, PVP-PtNPs were approximately spherical in shape, with an average size of 2.9 ± 0.6 nm. EDX proved the presence of Pt, C, and O. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) confirmed PtNPs functionalization with PVP. As determined by DLS, the average size of PtNPs stabilized by PVP was 111.4 ± 22.6 nm. A fluid containing resultant PVP-PtNPs was used as a heat conductive layer for a spiral radiator managing heat generated by a simulated internal combustion chamber. As compared to water, the use of PVP-PtNPs enhanced efficiency of the system, increasing the rate of heat transfer by 80% and 30% during heating and cooling, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Nanocellulose by Submerged Liquid Plasma for Surface Functionalization
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070467 - 26 Jun 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Tailoring the surface properties of nanocellulose to improve the compatibility of components in polymer nanocomposites is of great interest. In this work, dispersions of nanocellulose in water and acetonitrile were functionalized by submerged plasmas, with the aim of increasing the quality of this [...] Read more.
Tailoring the surface properties of nanocellulose to improve the compatibility of components in polymer nanocomposites is of great interest. In this work, dispersions of nanocellulose in water and acetonitrile were functionalized by submerged plasmas, with the aim of increasing the quality of this reinforcing agent in biopolymer composite materials. Both the morphology and surface chemistry of nanocellulose were influenced by the application of a plasma torch and filamentary jet plasma in a liquid suspension of nanocellulose. Depending on the type of plasma source and gas mixture the surface chemistry was modified by the incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups. The treatment conditions which lead to nanocellulose based polymer nanocomposites with superior mechanical properties were identified. This work provides a new eco-friendly method for the surface functionalization of nanocellulose directly in water suspension, thus overcoming the disadvantages of chemical treatments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pulse-Modulated Radio-Frequency Alternating-Current-Driven Atmospheric-Pressure Glow Discharge for Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxicity toward Human Melanoma Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060398 - 02 Jun 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
An innovative and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of size-controlled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is presented. Pectin-stabilized AgNPs were synthesized in a plasma-reaction system in which pulse-modulated radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (pm-rf-APGD) was operated in contact with a flowing liquid electrode. The use [...] Read more.
An innovative and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of size-controlled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is presented. Pectin-stabilized AgNPs were synthesized in a plasma-reaction system in which pulse-modulated radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (pm-rf-APGD) was operated in contact with a flowing liquid electrode. The use of pm-rf-APGD allows for better control of the size of AgNPs and their stability and monodispersity. AgNPs synthesized under defined operating conditions exhibited average sizes of 41.62 ± 12.08 nm and 10.38 ± 4.56 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that the nanoparticles were composed of metallic Ag. Furthermore, the ξ-potential of the AgNPs was shown to be −43.11 ± 0.96 mV, which will facilitate their application in biological systems. Between 70% and 90% of the cancerous cells of the human melanoma Hs 294T cell line underwent necrosis following treatment with the synthesized AgNPs. Furthermore, optical emission spectrometry (OES) identified reactive species, such as NO, NH, N2, O, and H, as pm-rf-APGD produced compounds that may be involved in the reduction of the Ag(I) ions. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Capacitively Coupled Plasma Discharge of Ionic Liquid Solutions to Synthesize Carbon Dots as Fluorescent Sensors
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060372 - 26 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Oxygen and nitrogen capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) was used to irradiate mixtures of aliphatic acids in high boiling point solvents to synthesize fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots). With a high fluorescence intensity, the C-dots obtained from the O2/CCP radiation of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium [...] Read more.
Oxygen and nitrogen capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) was used to irradiate mixtures of aliphatic acids in high boiling point solvents to synthesize fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots). With a high fluorescence intensity, the C-dots obtained from the O2/CCP radiation of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ionic liquid solution of citric acid were characterized with an average diameter of 8.6 nm (σ = 1.1 nm), nitrogen and oxygen bonding functionalities, excitation-independent emissions, and upconversion fluorescence. Through dialysis of the CCP-treated C-dots, two emissive surface states corresponding to their respective functionalities and emissions were identified. The fluorescence spectrum of the CCP-treated C-dots was different from that of the microwave irradiation and possessed higher intensity than that of hydrothermal pyrolysis. By evaluation of the fluorescence quenching effect on flavonoids and metal ions, the CCP-treated C-dots showed a high selectivity for quercetin and sensitivity to Hg2+. Based on the Perrin model, a calibration curve (R2 = 0.9992) was established for quercetin ranging from 2.4 μM to 119 μM with an LOD (limit of detection) = 0.5 μM. The quercetin in the ethanol extract of the sun-dried peel of Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis was determined by a standard addition method to be 4.20 ± 0.15 mg/g with a matrix effect of 8.16%. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Solution-Plasma-Mediated Synthesis of Si Nanoparticles for Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050286 - 27 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Silicon anodes have attracted considerable attention for their use in lithium-ion batteries because of their extremely high theoretical capacity; however, they are prone to extensive volume expansion during lithiation, which causes disintegration and poor cycling stability. In this article, we use two approaches [...] Read more.
Silicon anodes have attracted considerable attention for their use in lithium-ion batteries because of their extremely high theoretical capacity; however, they are prone to extensive volume expansion during lithiation, which causes disintegration and poor cycling stability. In this article, we use two approaches to address this issue, by reducing the size of the Si particles to nanoscale and incorporating them into a carbon composite to help modulate the volume expansion problems. We improve our previous work on the solution-plasma-mediated synthesis of Si nanoparticles (NPs) by adjusting the electrolyte medium to mild buffer solutions rather than strong acids, successfully generating Si-NPs with <10 nm diameters. We then combined these Si-NPs with carbon using MgO-template-assisted sol-gel combustion synthesis, which afforded porous carbon composite materials. Among the preparations, the composite material obtained from the LiCl 0.2 M + H3BO3 0.15 M solution-based Si-NPs exhibited a high reversible capacity of 537 mAh/g after 30 discharge/charge cycles at a current rate of 0.5 A/g. We attribute this increased reversible capacity to the decreased particle size of the Si-NPs. These results clearly show the applicability of this facile and environmentally friendly solution-plasma technique for producing Si-NPs as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Liquid Phase Plasma Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Activated Carbon Resulting in Nanocomposite for Supercapacitor Applications
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040190 - 25 Mar 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Iron oxide nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped activated carbon powder were synthesized using an innovative plasma-in-liquid method, called the liquid phase plasma (LPP) method. Nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) was prepared by a primary LPP reaction using an ammonium chloride reactant solution, and an iron oxide/NC [...] Read more.
Iron oxide nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped activated carbon powder were synthesized using an innovative plasma-in-liquid method, called the liquid phase plasma (LPP) method. Nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) was prepared by a primary LPP reaction using an ammonium chloride reactant solution, and an iron oxide/NC composite (IONCC) was prepared by a secondary LPP reaction using an iron chloride reactant solution. The nitrogen component at 3.77 at. % formed uniformly over the activated carbon (AC) surface after a 1 h LPP reaction. Iron oxide nanoparticles, 40~100 nm in size, were impregnated homogeneously over the NC surface after the LPP reaction, and were identified as Fe3O4 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. NC and IONCCs exhibited pseudo-capacitive characteristics, and their specific capacitance and cycling stability were superior to those of bare AC. The nitrogen content on the NC surface increased the compatibility and charge transfer rate, and the composites containing iron oxide exhibited a lower equivalent series resistance. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop