Special Issue "Smart Nanogenerators"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Zong-Hong Lin
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Guest Editor
Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan
Interests: nanosensors; self-powered systems; nanogenerators; wearable electronics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jyh-Ming Wu
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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University
Interests: piezotronics and piezoelectric nanogenerators; photocatalysis and smart sensor materials; flexible electronic devices and advanced functional materials
Prof. Dr. Chuan-Pu Liu
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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University
Interests: piezotronics and nanogenerators; thermoelectric devices based on nanowires, sensors, lithion ion battery, semiconductor nanomaterials and nanodevices
Prof. Zhong Lin Wang
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245, USA
Interests: nanogenerators and self-powered nanosystems; piezotronics for smart systems; piezo-phototronics for energy science and optoelectronics; hybrid cells for energy harvesting
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Renewable energy, as an alternative solution to fossil fuels, has triggered increasing research efforts from both industry and academia in recent decades. The attractive characteristics of renewable energy include its reduced carbon emissions, secure long-term energy supply, and less dependence on fossil fuels, all of which are mandatory for the sustainable development of the environment. While sustainable energy is urgently demanded, nanogenerators is one of the most promising candidates to fulfill the aforementioned needs, and thus has been developed in varied prototypes to harvest mechanical and thermal energy in the environment, such as piezoelectric nanogenerator proposed by Prof. Zhong Lin Wang in 2006, which converts tiny-scale mechanical energy into electricity. Since 2012, the development of triboelectric nanogenerator (also by Prof. Zhong Lin Wang) has demonstrated itself as an efficient power source to directly drive microelectronics or charge capacitor/battery for a self-powered sensing system. In addition to the benefits of cost-effectiveness, easy fabrication, and robust capability, nanogenerators are “smart” in their versatility to function beyond energy harvesting and work as active/self-powered nanosensors with no external input power, which are mini-sized and eco-friendly to eliminate the use of environmentally harmful materials in battery. The development of these nanogenerators has pushed its feasible applications in a wide range of fields. This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will attempt to cover the recent achievements in the fields of nanogenerators and self-powered nanosensors.

Dr. Zong-Hong Lin
Prof. Dr. Jyh-Ming Wu
Prof. Dr. Chuan-Pu Liu
Prof. Dr. Zhong Lin Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanogenerator
  • self-powered nanosensor
  • energy harvesting
  • contact electrification
  • piezoelectric nanomaterials
  • piezotronics
  • pyroelectric effect
  • thermoelectricity
  • wearable electronics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Increased Interfacial Area between Dielectric Layer and Electrode of Triboelectric Nanogenerator toward Robustness and Boosted Energy Output
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010071 - 06 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Given the operation conditions wherein mechanical wear is inevitable, modifying bulk properties of the dielectric layer of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been highlighted to boost its energy output. However, several concerns still remain in regards to the modification due to high-cost materials [...] Read more.
Given the operation conditions wherein mechanical wear is inevitable, modifying bulk properties of the dielectric layer of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been highlighted to boost its energy output. However, several concerns still remain in regards to the modification due to high-cost materials and cumbersome processes being required. Herein, we report TENG with a microstructured Al electrode (TENG_ME) as a new approach to modifying bulk properties of the dielectric layer. The microstructured Al electrode is utilized as a component of TENG to increase the interfacial area between the dielectric layer and electrode. Compared to the TENG with a flat Al electrode (TENG_F), the capacitance of TENG_ME is about 1.15 times higher than that of TENG_F, and the corresponding energy outputs of a TENG_ME are 117 μA and 71 V, each of which is over 1.2 times higher than that of the TENG_F. The robustness of TENG_ME is also confirmed in the measurement of energy outputs changing after sandpaper abrasion tests, repetitive contact, and separation (more than 105 cycles). The results imply that the robustness and long-lasting performance of the TENG_ME could be enough to apply in reliable auxiliary power sources for electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nanogenerators)
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Open AccessArticle
Dominant Role of Young’s Modulus for Electric Power Generation in PVDF–BaTiO3 Composite-Based Piezoelectric Nanogenerator
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100777 - 30 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The electric power output of a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) depends on the various physical parameters of the constituent materials, including the piezoelectric coefficient, Young’s modulus, and dielectric constant. Herein, we report the mechanical and electrical properties of a poly(vinylidene fluoride)–BaTiO3 (PVDF–BTO) composite-based [...] Read more.
The electric power output of a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) depends on the various physical parameters of the constituent materials, including the piezoelectric coefficient, Young’s modulus, and dielectric constant. Herein, we report the mechanical and electrical properties of a poly(vinylidene fluoride)–BaTiO3 (PVDF–BTO) composite-based PENG. Variation of the BTO nanoparticle (NP) content enabled the systematic tuning of the physical parameters that are related to power generation in the composite. The Young’s modulus of the PVDF–BTO composite initially increased, and then eventually decreased, with the increasing BTO content, which was probably due to the clustering effect of the high modulus BTO NPs. The dielectric constant of the composite continuously increased as the BaTiO3 content increased. The piezoelectric outputs were greatly enhanced at 10 wt% of BTO, where the Young’s modulus was the highest. These results indicate that the Young’s modulus plays an important role in the piezoelectric power generation of the composite-based PENGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nanogenerators)
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Open AccessArticle
Stretchable and Wearable Triboelectric Nanogenerator Based on Kinesio Tape for Self-Powered Human Motion Sensing
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090657 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Recently, wearable, self-powered, active human motion sensors have attracted a great deal of attention for biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology, and entertainment. Although some progress has been achieved, new types of stretchable and wearable devices are urgently required to promote the practical application. In this [...] Read more.
Recently, wearable, self-powered, active human motion sensors have attracted a great deal of attention for biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology, and entertainment. Although some progress has been achieved, new types of stretchable and wearable devices are urgently required to promote the practical application. In this article, targeted at self-powered active human motion sensing, a stretchable, flexible, and wearable triboelectric nanogenerator based on kinesio tapes (KT-TENG) haven been designed and investigated systematically. The device can effectively work during stretching or bending. Both the short-circuit transferred charge and open-circuit voltage exhibit an excellent linear relationship with the stretched displacements and bending angles, enabling its application as a wearable self-powered sensor for real-time human motion monitoring, like knee joint bending and human gestures. Moreover, the KT-TENG shows good stability and durability for long-term operation. Compared with the previous works, the KT-TENG without a macro-scale air gap inside, or stretchable triboelectric layers, possesses various advantages, such as simple fabrication, compact structure, superior flexibility and stability, excellent conformable contact with skin, and wide-range selection of triboelectric materials. This work provides a new prospect for a wearable, self-powered, active human motion sensor and has numerous potential applications in the fields of healthcare monitoring, human-machine interfacing, and prosthesis developing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nanogenerators)
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Open AccessArticle
Porous α-Fe2O3@C Nanowire Arrays as Flexible Supercapacitors Electrode Materials with Excellent Electrochemical Performances
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070487 - 01 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Porous α-Fe2O3 nanowire arrays coated with a layer of carbon shell have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized products show an excellent electrochemical performance with high specific capacitance and good cycling life after 9000 cycles. A solid [...] Read more.
Porous α-Fe2O3 nanowire arrays coated with a layer of carbon shell have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized products show an excellent electrochemical performance with high specific capacitance and good cycling life after 9000 cycles. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) with a 2 V operation voltage window has been assembled by porous α-Fe2O3/C nanowire arrays as the anode materials, and MnO2 nanosheets as the cathode materials, which gives rise to a maximum energy density of 30.625 Wh kg−1and a maximum power density of 5000 W kg−1 with an excellent cycling performance of 82% retention after 10,000 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nanogenerators)
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Open AccessArticle
Piezoelectric Response of Aligned Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Carbon Nanotube Nanofibrous Membranes
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060420 - 10 Jun 2018
Cited by 22
Abstract
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shows piezoelectricity related to its β-phase content and mechanical and electrical properties influenced by its morphology and crystallinity. Electrospinning (ES) can produce ultrafine and well-aligned PVDF nanofibers. In this study, the effects of the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and [...] Read more.
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shows piezoelectricity related to its β-phase content and mechanical and electrical properties influenced by its morphology and crystallinity. Electrospinning (ES) can produce ultrafine and well-aligned PVDF nanofibers. In this study, the effects of the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and optimized ES parameters on the crystal structures and piezoelectric properties of aligned PVDF/CNT nanofibrous membranes were examined. The optimal β content and piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of the aligned electrospun PVDF reached 88% and 27.4 pC/N; CNT addition increased the β-phase content to 89% and d33 to 31.3 pC/N. The output voltages of piezoelectric units with aligned electrospun PVDF/CNT membranes increased linearly with applied loading and showed good stability during cyclic dynamic compression and tension. The sensitivities of the piezoelectric units with the membranes under dynamic compression and tension were 2.26 mV/N and 4.29 mV/%, respectively. In bending tests, the output voltage increased nonlinearly with bending angle because complicated forces were involved. The output of the aligned membrane-based piezoelectric unit with CNT was 1.89 V at the bending angle of 100°. The high electric outputs indicate that the aligned electrospun PVDF/CNT membranes are potentially effective for flexible wearable sensor application with high sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nanogenerators)
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