Special Issue "Application and Behavior of Nanomaterials in Water Treatment"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Protima Rauwel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56/1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
Interests: metal oxide thin film characterization; metal nanoparticles; carbon-based hybrid materials; photovoltaics; scanning transmission electron microscopy; water purification
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. habil. Erwan Rauwel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Estonian University of Life Science, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56/1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
Interests: metal oxide thin film deposition; atomic layer deposition; nanomaterial synthesis; metal nanoparticles; metal oxide nanoparticles; water purification; nanomedicine; photovoltaics; hybrid nanocomposites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Uhl
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349, Oslo, Norway and Norwegian University for Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
Interests: water treatment; environmental systems engineering; water quality; water resources; particle technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is one of the most important resources for human existence. However, the contamination of water resources by heavy metal ions, dyes, and pharmaceuticals appears to be a severe threat, worldwide, and these contaminations, even in very small concentrations, disturb or threaten aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity. They also tend to be carcinogenic and, therefore, are health hazards.

The recent development of nanotechnologies is an important emerging field in water remediation. The last few decades have shown the development of multiple applications involving nanomaterials and, more particularly, metal nanoparticles that are now applied for the decontamination of water. Multiple technologies based on graphene-based nanocomposites, functionalized magnetic nanomaterials, layered double hydroxides, and nanophotocatalysts, have been investigated for the same purpose. Challenges such as the removal of radionuclides, heavy metal cations and metalloids, such as Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, nitrates, phenols, and other organic species, can be met using nanomaterials that enable a selective extraction via functionalization.

This Special Issue will compile recent developments in nanomaterials in the field of water treatment. The topics are open to nanomaterials both organic and inorganic that are used in applications related to water remediation.

Dr. Protima Rauwel
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Uhl
Prof. Dr. habil. Erwan Rauwel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water treatment
  • Waste water, drinking water,
  • irrigation water,
  • feedstock drinking water,
  • industrial water
  • Radionuclides
  • Heavy metal ions
  • Graphene
  • carbon nanotubes
  • Nanoparticles
  • Photocatalysts
  • Ion exchange
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Dyes

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on ‘Application and Behavior of Nanomaterials in Water Treatment’
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060880 - 14 Jun 2019
Abstract
The simultaneous population explosion and the growing lack of clean water today requires disruptively innovative solutions in water remediation [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Controlled Growth of LDH Films with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity in a Mixed Wastewater Treatment
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060807 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Due to multiple charge transport pathways, adjustable layer spacing, compositional flexibility, low manufacturing cost, and absorption of visible light, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a promising material for wastewater treatment. In this study, LDH films and Fe-doped LDH films with different metal ions [...] Read more.
Due to multiple charge transport pathways, adjustable layer spacing, compositional flexibility, low manufacturing cost, and absorption of visible light, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a promising material for wastewater treatment. In this study, LDH films and Fe-doped LDH films with different metal ions (Ni, Al, Fe) on the surface of conductive cloth were successfully prepared and applied for the photocatalytic degradation of wastewater containing methyl orange and Ag ions under visible-light irradiation. The chemical state of Fe ions and the composition of LDHs on methyl orange photodegradation were investigated. The experimental results showed that LDH films exhibited high photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of LDH films on methyl orange improved in the mixed wastewater, and the Fe-doped NiAl–LDH films exhibited best visible-light photocatalytic performance. The analysis showed that Ag ions in the mixed wastewater were reduced by the LDH films and subsequently deposited on the surface of the LDH films. The Ag nanoparticles acted as electron traps and promoted the photocatalytic activity of the LDH films on methyl orange. Thus, we have demonstrated that prepared LDH films can be used in the treatment of mixed wastewater and have broad application prospects in environmental remediation and purification processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Nanoporous Carbon Synthesized from Direct Carbonization of a Metal–Organic Complex as a Highly Effective Dye Adsorbent and Supercapacitor
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040601 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The synthesis of interconnected nanoporous carbon (NPC) material from direct annealing of ultra-small Al-based metal–organic complex (Al-MOC) has been demonstrated. NPC presents a large accessible area of 1054 m2/g, through the Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption method, which is comparable to the [...] Read more.
The synthesis of interconnected nanoporous carbon (NPC) material from direct annealing of ultra-small Al-based metal–organic complex (Al-MOC) has been demonstrated. NPC presents a large accessible area of 1054 m2/g, through the Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption method, which is comparable to the high specific surface area (SSA) of 1593 m2/g, through an N2 adsorption/desorption analysis. The adsorption properties and mechanisms were tested by various dye concentrations, pH, and temperature conditions. The high MB accessible area and the good electrical conductivity of the interconnected NPC, led to a large specific capacitance of 205 F/g, with a potential window from 0 to 1.2 V, in a symmetric supercapacitor, and a large energy density of 10.25 Wh/kg, in an aqueous electrolyte, suggesting a large potential in supercapacitors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interaction between Persistent Organic Pollutants and ZnO NPs in Synthetic and Natural Waters
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030472 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDPEs) in different products and applications leads to the likelihood of their co-occurrence in the aquatic system, making it important to study the effect of PBDPEs on the fate and transport [...] Read more.
The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDPEs) in different products and applications leads to the likelihood of their co-occurrence in the aquatic system, making it important to study the effect of PBDPEs on the fate and transport of ZnO NPs. In this study, we determine the influence of PBDPEs (BDPE-47 and BDPE-209) on the colloidal stability and physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs in different aqueous matrices. The results indicated the shift in ζ potential of ZnO NP from positive to negative in the presence of both PBDPEs in all tested waters; however, the effect on the NPs surface potential was specific to each water considered. The lower concentration of the PBDPEs (e.g., 0.5 mg/L) significantly reduced the ζ potential and hydrodynamic diameter (HDD) of ZnO NP, even in the presence of high content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in both freshwater and industrial wastewater. Moreover, both BDPE-47 and BDPE-209 impede the agglomeration of ZnO NP in simple and natural media, even in the presence of monovalent and polyvalent cations. However, the effect of BDPE-47 on the ζ potential, HDD, and agglomeration of ZnO NP was more pronounced than that of BDPE-209 in all tested waters. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS) further confirm the adsorption of PBDPEs onto ZnO NP surface via aromatic ether groups and Br elements. The findings of this study will facilitate a better understanding of the interaction behavior between the ZnO NPs and PBDPEs, which can reduce the exposure risk of aquatic organisms to both pollutants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Highly Efficient Dye Removal Characterization of Beta-Cyclodextrin-Based Composite Polymer Fibers by Electrospinning
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010127 - 20 Jan 2019
Cited by 30
Abstract
Dye wastewater is one of the most important problems to be faced and solved in wastewater treatment. However, the treatment cannot be single and simple adsorption due to the complexity of dye species. In this work, we prepared novel composite fiber adsorbent materials [...] Read more.
Dye wastewater is one of the most important problems to be faced and solved in wastewater treatment. However, the treatment cannot be single and simple adsorption due to the complexity of dye species. In this work, we prepared novel composite fiber adsorbent materials consisting of ε-polycaprolactone (PCL) and beta-cyclodextrin-based polymer (PCD) by electrospinning. The morphological and spectral characterization demonstrated the successful preparation of a series of composite fibers with different mass ratios. The obtained fiber materials have demonstrated remarkable selective adsorption for MB and 4-aminoazobenzene solutions. The addition of a PCD component in composite fibers enhanced the mechanical strength of membranes and changed the adsorption uptake due to the cavity molecular structure via host–guest interaction. The dye removal efficiency could reach 24.1 mg/g towards 4-aminoazobenzene. Due to the admirable stability and selectivity adsorption process, the present prepared beta-cyclodextrin-based composite fibers have demonstrated potential large-scale applications in dye uptake and wastewater treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Facile Preparation of Self-Assembled Polydopamine-Modified Electrospun Fibers for Highly Effective Removal of Organic Dyes
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010116 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 39
Abstract
Polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles can be used as an adsorbent with excellent adsorption capacity. However, nanosized adsorbents are prone to aggregation and thus are severely limited in the field of adsorption. In order to solve this problem, we utilized polydopamine in-situ oxidation self-polymerization on [...] Read more.
Polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles can be used as an adsorbent with excellent adsorption capacity. However, nanosized adsorbents are prone to aggregation and thus are severely limited in the field of adsorption. In order to solve this problem, we utilized polydopamine in-situ oxidation self-polymerization on the surface of polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) electrospun fiber after solvent vapor annealing (SVA) treatment, and successfully designed and prepared a PCL/[email protected] composite membrane. The SVA treatment regulated the microscopic morphology of smooth PCL/PEO electrospun fibers that exhibited a pleated microstructure, increasing the specific surface area, and providing abundant active sites for the anchoring of PDA nanoparticles. The PCL/[email protected] composite obtained by chemical modification of PDA demonstrated numerous active sites for the adsorption of methylene (MB) and methyl orange (MO). In addition, the PCL/[email protected] composites were reusable several times with good reutilization as adsorbents. Therefore, we have developed a highly efficient and non-agglomerated dye adsorbent that exhibits potential large-scale application in dye removal and wastewater purification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Magnetic Fe3O4/MIL-88A Nanocomposite and Its Adsorption Properties for Bromophenol Blue Dye in Aqueous Solution
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010051 - 02 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered as good materials for the adsorption of many environmental pollutants. In this study, magnetic Fe3O4/MIL-88A composite was prepared by modification of MIL-88A with magnetic nanoparticles using the coprecipitation method. The structures and magnetic property [...] Read more.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered as good materials for the adsorption of many environmental pollutants. In this study, magnetic Fe3O4/MIL-88A composite was prepared by modification of MIL-88A with magnetic nanoparticles using the coprecipitation method. The structures and magnetic property of magnetic Fe3O4/MIL-88A composite were characterized and the adsorption behavior and mechanism for Bromophenol Blue (BPB) were evaluated. The results showed that magnetic Fe3O4/MIL-88A composite maintained a hexagonal rod-like structure and has good magnetic responsibility for magnetic separation (the maximum saturation magnetization was 49.8 emu/g). Moreover, the maximum adsorption amount of Fe3O4/MIL-88A composite for BPB was 167.2 mg/g and could maintain 94% of the initial adsorption amount after five cycles. The pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models mostly fitted to the adsorption for BPB suggesting that chemisorption is the rate-limiting step for this monomolecular-layer adsorption. The adsorption capacity for another eight dyes (Bromocresol Green, Brilliant Green, Brilliant Crocein, Amaranth, Fuchsin Basic, Safranine T, Malachite Green and Methyl Red) were also conducted and the magnetic Fe3O4/MIL-88A composite showed good adsorption for dyes with sulfonyl groups. In conclusion, magnetic Fe3O4/MIL-88A composite could be a promising adsorbent and shows great potential for the removal of anionic dyes containing sulfonyl groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Facile Preparation of Rod-like MnO Nanomixtures via Hydrothermal Approach and Highly Efficient Removal of Methylene Blue for Wastewater Treatment
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010010 - 22 Dec 2018
Cited by 33
Abstract
In the present study, nanoscale rod-shaped manganese oxide (MnO) mixtures were successfully prepared from graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) through a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MnO nanomixtures exhibited high activity in the adsorption and [...] Read more.
In the present study, nanoscale rod-shaped manganese oxide (MnO) mixtures were successfully prepared from graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) through a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MnO nanomixtures exhibited high activity in the adsorption and degradation of methylene blue (MB). The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, the effects of the dose of MnO nanomixtures, pH of the solution, initial concentration of MB, and the temperature of MB removal in dye adsorption and degradation experiments was investigated. The degradation mechanism of MB upon treatment with MnO nanomixtures and H2O2 was studied and discussed. The results showed that a maximum adsorption capacity of 154 mg g−1 was obtained for a 60 mg L−1 MB solution at pH 9.0 and 25 °C, and the highest MB degradation ratio reached 99.8% under the following optimum conditions: 50 mL of MB solution (20 mg L−1) at room temperature and pH ≈ 8.0 with 7 mg of C, N-doped MnO and 0.5 mL of H2O2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dy(III) Doped BiOCl Powder with Superior Highly Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity for Rhodamine B Photodegradation
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090697 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Dy-doped BiOCl powder photocatalyst was synthesized A one–step coprecipitation method. The incorporation of Dy3+ replaced partial Bi3+ in BiOCl crystal lattice system. For Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, 2% Dy doped BiOCl possessed highly efficient photocatalytic activity and photodegradation [...] Read more.
Dy-doped BiOCl powder photocatalyst was synthesized A one–step coprecipitation method. The incorporation of Dy3+ replaced partial Bi3+ in BiOCl crystal lattice system. For Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, 2% Dy doped BiOCl possessed highly efficient photocatalytic activity and photodegradation efficiency. The photodegradation ratio of RhB could reach 97.3% after only 30 min of photocatalytic reaction; this was more than relative investigations have reported in the last two years. The main reason was that the 4f electron shell of Dy in the BiOCl crystal lattice system can generate a special electronic shell structure that facilitated the transfer of electron from valance band to conduction band and separation of the photoinduced charge carrier. Apart from material preparation, this research is expected to provide important references for RhB photodegradation in practical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silver Nanomaterial-Immobilized Desalination Systems for Efficient Removal of Radioactive Iodine Species in Water
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090660 - 26 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Increasing concerns regarding the adverse effects of radioactive iodine waste have inspired the development of a highly efficient and sustainable desalination process for the treatment of radioactive iodine-contaminated water. Because of the high affinity of silver towards iodine species, silver nanoparticles immobilized on [...] Read more.
Increasing concerns regarding the adverse effects of radioactive iodine waste have inspired the development of a highly efficient and sustainable desalination process for the treatment of radioactive iodine-contaminated water. Because of the high affinity of silver towards iodine species, silver nanoparticles immobilized on a cellulose acetate membrane (Ag-CAM) and biogenic silver nanoparticles containing the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans (Ag-DR) were developed and investigated for desalination performance in removing radioactive iodines from water. A simple filtration of radioactive iodine using Ag-CAM under continuous in-flow conditions (approximately 1.5 mL/s) provided an excellent removal efficiency (>99%) as well as iodide anion-selectivity. In the bioremediation study, the radioactive iodine was rapidly captured by Ag-DR in the presence of high concentration of competing anions in a short time. The results from both procedures can be visualized by using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning. This work presents a promising desalination method for the removal of radioactive iodine and a practical application model for remediating radioelement-contaminated waters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Photocatalyst BiVO4/Mn-Zn ferrite/Reduced Graphene Oxide: Synthesis Strategy and Its Highly Photocatalytic Activity
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060380 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Magnetic photocatalyst BiVO4/Mn-Zn ferrite (Mn1−xZnxFe2O4)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized by a simple calcination and reduction method. The magnetic photocatalyst held high visible light-absorption ability with low band gap energy and wide [...] Read more.
Magnetic photocatalyst BiVO4/Mn-Zn ferrite (Mn1−xZnxFe2O4)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized by a simple calcination and reduction method. The magnetic photocatalyst held high visible light-absorption ability with low band gap energy and wide absorption wavelength range. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopies illustrated good electrical conductivity which indicated low charge-transfer resistance due to incorporation of Mn1−xZnxFe2O4 and RGO. The test of photocatalytic activity showed that the degradation ratio of rhodamine B (RhB) reached 96.0% under visible light irradiation after only 1.5 h reaction. The photocatalytic mechanism for the prepared photocatalyst was explained in detail. Here, the incorporation of RGO enhanced the specific surface area compared with BiVO4/Mn1−xZnxFe2O4.The larger specific surface area provided more active surface sites, more free space to improve the mobility of photo-induced electrons, and further facilitated the effective migration of charge carriers, leading to the remarkable improvement of photocatalytic performance. Meanwhile, RGO was the effective acceptor as well as transporter of photo-generated electron hole pairs. •O2 was the most active species in the photocatalytic reaction. BiVO4/Mn1−xZnxFe2O4/RGO had quite a wide application in organic contaminants removal or environmental pollution control. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Towards the Extraction of Radioactive Cesium-137 from Water via Graphene/CNT and Nanostructured Prussian Blue Hybrid Nanocomposites: A Review
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050682 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cesium is a radioactive fission product generated in nuclear power plants and is disposed of as liquid waste. The recent catastrophe at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan has increased the 137Cs and 134Cs concentrations in air, soil and water [...] Read more.
Cesium is a radioactive fission product generated in nuclear power plants and is disposed of as liquid waste. The recent catastrophe at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan has increased the 137Cs and 134Cs concentrations in air, soil and water to lethal levels. 137Cs has a half-life of 30.4 years, while the half-life of 134Cs is around two years, therefore the formers’ detrimental effects linger for a longer period. In addition, cesium is easily transported through water bodies making water contamination an urgent issue to address. Presently, efficient water remediation methods towards the extraction of 137Cs are being studied. Prussian blue (PB) and its analogs have shown very high efficiencies in the capture of 137Cs+ ions. In addition, combining them with magnetic nanoparticles such as Fe3O4 allows their recovery via magnetic extraction once exhausted. Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNT) are the new generation carbon allotropes that possess high specific surface areas. Moreover, the possibility to functionalize them with organic or inorganic materials opens new avenues in water treatment. The combination of PB-CNT/Graphene has shown enhanced 137Cs+ extraction and their possible applications as membranes can be envisaged. This review will survey these nanocomposites, their efficiency in 137Cs+ extraction, their possible toxicity, and prospects in large-scale water remediation and succinctly survey other new developments in 137Cs+ extraction. Full article
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