Special Issue "Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. George Z. Kyzas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, Kavala 65404, Greece
Interests: wastewater treatment; polymers; decontamination; materials; sorption; nanobubbles; transportation phenomena
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Athanasios C. Mitropoulos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, Kavala 65404, Greece
Interests: wastewater treatment; membranes; colloids; polymers; decontamination; materials; nanobubbles; transportation phenomena

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapidly increasing population, depleting water resources, and climate change resulting in prolonged droughts and floods have rendered drinking water as a competitive resource in many parts of the world. Therefore, any form of water reuse or recycle will help to mitigate this challenge. The careful management of water and wastewater is a big challenge and “hot” trend of recent research. During the past century, a huge amount of wastewater was discharged into rivers, lakes, and coastal areas. This resulted in serious pollution problems in the aqueous environment. Municipal, industrial, and natural activities produce large quantities of liquid wastes and effluents which pose severe threats to the environment and human health. So, it is mandatory to find the appropriate technique in order to efficiently treat and manage water and wastewaters. Some indicative/conventional methods are: biological treatments, adsorption, flocculation, oxidation, membranes, filtration, etc. These conventional technologies focus only on the primary wastewater treatment, especially on the physical separation of solid particles and the release of high concentrations of toxic phosphorus, nitrogen, and other ionic compounds into the environment. Thus, the latest technology involving Nanotechnology is highly potent in advancing wastewater treatment via Nanomaterials (nanoadsorbents, nanocomposites, (photo)catalysts, nanofiltration, nanomembranes, nanoparticles, etc.). These nanomaterials have been established in the development of separation membranes, catalysts, and adsorbent materials to enhance the removal of specific components of wastewater and improve productivity. Zero-valent metal nanoparticles (Ag, Fe, and Zn), metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, and iron oxides), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanocomposites, and many other types of nanomaterials are already used in wastewater treatment. All of the above can be achieved by using Nanotechnology. This Special Issue on “Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment” seeks high-quality works and topics (not only those) focusing on the latest approaches based on Nanotechnology to efficiently treat wastewater.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. George Kyzas
Prof. Dr. Athanasios C. Mitropoulos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • materials
  • polymers
  • water
  • wastewater
  • management

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Kinetic Removal of Ciprofloxacin onto Metal-Organic Frameworks by Sonication, Process Optimization and Metal Leaching Study
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101422 - 08 Oct 2019
Abstract
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are currently recognized as unique platforms for environmental studies. This study evaluated the potential of nine MOFs from ZIF-8, ZIF-67, and UIO-66 families for the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent fluoroquinolone antibiotic. ZIF-67-SO4, with [...] Read more.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are currently recognized as unique platforms for environmental studies. This study evaluated the potential of nine MOFs from ZIF-8, ZIF-67, and UIO-66 families for the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent fluoroquinolone antibiotic. ZIF-67-SO4, with a rhombic crystalline morphology and 1375 m2/g BET surface area, has the highest CIP adsorption efficiency among the studied MOFs. The mathematical sorption model predicted that the highest CIP removal (99.2%) occurs when adsorbent dose, pH, and agitation time are adjusted to 6.82, 832.4 mg/L, and 39.95 min, respectively. Further studies revealed that the CIP adsorbed onto ZIF-67-SO4 in monolayer (qmax: 2537.5 mg/g) and chemisorption controlled the rate of the process. Mass transfer kinetic coefficients improved significantly by sonication at 35 KHz in comparison with mechanical agitation. Thermodynamic parameters (minus signs of ∆G° [7.8 to 14.2], positive signs of ∆H° (58.9 KJ/mol), and ∆S° (0.23 KJ/mol·K)) demonstrated the spontaneous, endothermic, and chemical sorption of CIP. The level of cobalt leached from ZIF-67-SO4 structure varied 1.2–4.5 mg/L, depending on pH, mixing time, and agitation type. In conclusion, the excellent adsorption properties of ZIF-67-SO4 for CIP, made it an outstanding candidate for environmental protection purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment)
Open AccessCommunication
Continuous Flow Removal of Anionic Dyes in Water by Chitosan-Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Incorporated in a Dextran Gel Column
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081164 - 14 Aug 2019
Abstract
This paper describes a novel chromatographic method for efficient removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. Chitosan-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles can easily be immobilized on a dextran gel column. Single elution of Evans Blue (EB) solution to the nanoadsorbent-incorporated columns provides [...] Read more.
This paper describes a novel chromatographic method for efficient removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. Chitosan-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles can easily be immobilized on a dextran gel column. Single elution of Evans Blue (EB) solution to the nanoadsorbent-incorporated columns provides high removal efficiency with a maximum adsorption capacity of 243.9 mg/g. We also investigated the influence of initial concentration and solution pH on the removal efficiency of EB. The electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent surface and negatively charged sulfate groups on EB molecules promotes the efficient adsorption of dyes. The equilibrium data matched well with the Langmuir isotherm model, which indicated monolayer dye adsorption onto the adsorbent surface. To extend the application of the current method, we performed further adsorption experiments using other anionic dyes of different colors (Cy5.5, Acid Yellow 25, Acid Green 25, and Acid Red 1). All of these molecules can efficiently be captured under continuous flow conditions, with higher removal efficiency obtained with more negatively charged dyes. These findings clearly demonstrate that the present approach is a useful method for the removal of anionic dye contaminants in aqueous media by adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Hierarchical Porous Carbon in Molten Salt and Its Application for Dye Adsorption
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081098 - 31 Jul 2019
Abstract
Hierarchical porous carbon was successfully synthesized from glucose in a molten salt at 800 °C for 2 h. It was amorphous and contained numerous oxygen containing functional groups on its surface. The porous carbon with 1.0 wt% Fe(NO3)3·9H2 [...] Read more.
Hierarchical porous carbon was successfully synthesized from glucose in a molten salt at 800 °C for 2 h. It was amorphous and contained numerous oxygen containing functional groups on its surface. The porous carbon with 1.0 wt% Fe(NO3)3·9H2O oxidizing agent showed the highest specific surface area of 1078 m2/g, and the largest pore volume of 0.636 cm3/g, among all of the samples. Raman and TEM results revealed that it had more defects and pores than other as-prepared carbon materials. The adsorption capacities of as-prepared porous carbon for methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) were 506.8 mg/g and 683.8 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption isotherms fit the Langmuir model and the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Tailoring the Performance of Graphene Aerogels for Oil/Organic Solvent Separation by 1-Step Solvothermal Approach
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081077 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
Ultra-light eco-friendly graphene oxide (GO)-based aerogels are reported by simple one-step solvothermal self-assembly. The effect of varying parameters such as C/O ratio of GO; reducing agent amount; temperature; and duration on the properties of the aerogels was studied. The structural and vibrational features [...] Read more.
Ultra-light eco-friendly graphene oxide (GO)-based aerogels are reported by simple one-step solvothermal self-assembly. The effect of varying parameters such as C/O ratio of GO; reducing agent amount; temperature; and duration on the properties of the aerogels was studied. The structural and vibrational features and hydrophobic surface properties of the obtained aerogels were obtained by XRD; FTIR; XPS; Raman; SEM; and contact angle measurements. The effect of synthesis conditions on the engine oil and organic solvent absorption properties was assessed. The results indicated that the lower the C/O ratio of GO, the better the absorption properties, with the best performance for oil uptake reaching 86 g g−1. The obtained results indicate the approach based on ice-templating and the tailoring of oxygen content in GO make the resulting aerogels potential candidates for use in oil spill and organic solvent treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
CoMn2O4 Catalyst Prepared Using the Sol-Gel Method for the Activation of Peroxymonosulfate and Degradation of UV Filter 2-Phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic Acid (PBSA)
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050774 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, a bimetallic oxide catalyst of cobalt-manganese (CoMn2O4) was synthesized using the sol-gel method, and it was then characterized using a variety of techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) [...] Read more.
In this study, a bimetallic oxide catalyst of cobalt-manganese (CoMn2O4) was synthesized using the sol-gel method, and it was then characterized using a variety of techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The obtained novel catalyst, i.e., CoMn2O4, was then used as an activator of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the catalytic degradation of a commonly-used UV filter, 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA) in water. The effects of various factors (e.g., catalyst dosage, PMS concentration, reaction temperature, and pH) in the process were also evaluated. Chemical scavengers and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tests showed that the OH and SO4•− were the main reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, this study showed that CoMn2O4 is a promising catalyst for activating PMS to degrade the UV filters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment)
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