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Open AccessArticle

Enhanced Kinetic Removal of Ciprofloxacin onto Metal-Organic Frameworks by Sonication, Process Optimization and Metal Leaching Study

1
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9138813944, Iran
2
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9138813944, Iran
3
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur 9318614139, Iran
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Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1449614535, Iran
5
Department of Environment & Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101422
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 October 2019 / Published: 8 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment)
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are currently recognized as unique platforms for environmental studies. This study evaluated the potential of nine MOFs from ZIF-8, ZIF-67, and UIO-66 families for the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a toxic, bio-accumulative, and persistent fluoroquinolone antibiotic. ZIF-67-SO4, with a rhombic crystalline morphology and 1375 m2/g BET surface area, has the highest CIP adsorption efficiency among the studied MOFs. The mathematical sorption model predicted that the highest CIP removal (99.2%) occurs when adsorbent dose, pH, and agitation time are adjusted to 6.82, 832.4 mg/L, and 39.95 min, respectively. Further studies revealed that the CIP adsorbed onto ZIF-67-SO4 in monolayer (qmax: 2537.5 mg/g) and chemisorption controlled the rate of the process. Mass transfer kinetic coefficients improved significantly by sonication at 35 KHz in comparison with mechanical agitation. Thermodynamic parameters (minus signs of ∆G° [7.8 to 14.2], positive signs of ∆H° (58.9 KJ/mol), and ∆S° (0.23 KJ/mol·K)) demonstrated the spontaneous, endothermic, and chemical sorption of CIP. The level of cobalt leached from ZIF-67-SO4 structure varied 1.2–4.5 mg/L, depending on pH, mixing time, and agitation type. In conclusion, the excellent adsorption properties of ZIF-67-SO4 for CIP, made it an outstanding candidate for environmental protection purposes.
Keywords: metal organic frameworks (MOFs); adsorption; ciprofloxacin; sonication; metal leaching; kinetic metal organic frameworks (MOFs); adsorption; ciprofloxacin; sonication; metal leaching; kinetic
MDPI and ACS Style

Dehghan, A.; Mohammadi, A.A.; Yousefi, M.; Najafpoor, A.A.; Shams, M.; Rezania, S. Enhanced Kinetic Removal of Ciprofloxacin onto Metal-Organic Frameworks by Sonication, Process Optimization and Metal Leaching Study. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1422.

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