Special Issue "Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020) | Viewed by 27544

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. George Z. Kyzas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece
Interests: nanobubbles; wastewater treatment; polymers; decontamination; materials; sorption; transportation phenomena
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Athanasios C. Mitropoulos
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece
Interests: wastewater treatment; membranes; colloids; polymers; decontamination; materials; nanobubbles; transportation phenomena
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is crucial point of interests nowadays due to its special management. On the other hand, wastewaters is one of the important pollution type of the water environment. The careful management of water and wastewater is a big challenge and “hot” trend of recent research. During the last century, a huge amount of wastewater was discharged into rivers, lakes, and coastal areas. This resulted in serious pollution problems in the aqueous environments. So, it mandatory to find the appropriate technique in order to efficiently treat and manage water and wastewaters. Some indicative/typical methods are biological treatments, adsorption, flocculation, oxidation, membranes, and filtration. All of the above can be achieved by using polymeric materials (polymeric adsorbent materials, polymeric flocculants, polymeric filters, polymeric membranes, polymeric composites, etc). This Special Issue on “Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management” seeks high-quality works and topics focusing on (but not restricted to) the latest approaches to the management of water and wastewaters including biological, chemical, adsorption, flocculation, oxidation, membranes, and filtration using polymeric materials.

Assoc. Prof. George Z. Kyzas
Prof. Athanasios C. Mitropoulos
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • Materials
  • Polymers
  • Water
  • Wastewater
  • Management

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Editorial
Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management
Polymers 2021, 13(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010168 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Water is a crucial point of interest nowadays due to its special management [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Article
Synthesis, Characterization, and Analysis of Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Application for Aluminum Removal
Polymers 2020, 12(6), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12061305 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on biomass powder-activated carbon (bio-PAC) by loading iron nanoparticles (Fe) as catalyst templates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and using acetylene as carbon source, under specific conditions as reaction temperature, time, and gas ratio that are 550 [...] Read more.
Hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on biomass powder-activated carbon (bio-PAC) by loading iron nanoparticles (Fe) as catalyst templates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and using acetylene as carbon source, under specific conditions as reaction temperature, time, and gas ratio that are 550 °C, 47 min, and 1, respectively. Specifications of hybrid CNTs were analyzed and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopic (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and zeta potential. The results revealed the high quality and unique morphologies of hybrid CNTs. Furthermore, removal and capacity of Al3+ were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). However, the results revealed that the pseudo-second-order model well represented adsorption kinetic data, while the isotherm data were effectively fitted using a Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity was 347.88 mg/g. It could be concluded that synthesized hybrid CNTs are a new cost-effective and promising adsorbent for removing Al3+ ion from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Filler-Modified Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Foam for the Removal of Aqueous Heavy Metals Detected Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique
Polymers 2020, 12(4), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12040903 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
The use of polymeric material in heavy metal removal from wastewater is trending. Heavy metal removal from wastewater of the industrial process is of utmost importance in green/sustainable manufacturing. Production of absorbent materials from a natural source for industrial wastewater has been on [...] Read more.
The use of polymeric material in heavy metal removal from wastewater is trending. Heavy metal removal from wastewater of the industrial process is of utmost importance in green/sustainable manufacturing. Production of absorbent materials from a natural source for industrial wastewater has been on the increase. In this research, polyurethane foam (PUF), an adsorbent used by industries to adsorb heavy metal from wastewater, was prepared from a renewable source. Castor oil-based polyurethane foam (COPUF) was produced and modified for improved adsorption performance using fillers, analyzed with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The fillers (zeolite, bentonite, and activated carbon) were added to the COPUF matrix allowing the modification on its surface morphology and charge. The materials were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA), while their adsorption performance was studied by comparing the LIBS spectra. The bentonite-modified COPUF (B/COPUF) gave the highest value of the normalized Pb I (405.7 nm) line intensity (2.3), followed by zeolite-modified COPUF (Z/COPUF) (1.9), and activated carbon-modified COPUF (AC/COPUF) (0.2), which indicates the adsorption performance of Pb2+ on the respective materials. The heavy metal ions’ adsorption on the B/COPUF dominantly resulted from the electrostatic attraction. This study demonstrated the potential use of B/COPUF in adsorption and LIBS quantitative analysis of aqueous heavy metal ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Removal of Boron and Manganese Ions from Wet-Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater by Hybrid Chitosan-Zirconium Sorbent
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030635 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater, after the alkaline precipitation and coagulation processes, often requires additional treatment in order to reduce the concentrations of boron and heavy metals below the required limits. In this study, we present an innovative and environmentally friendly method for [...] Read more.
Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater, after the alkaline precipitation and coagulation processes, often requires additional treatment in order to reduce the concentrations of boron and heavy metals below the required limits. In this study, we present an innovative and environmentally friendly method for boron and manganese removal that is based on a hybrid chitosan-zirconium hydrogel sorbent. The results from the batch adsorption experiment indicated that the uptake capacity for boron and manganese was equal to 1.61 mg/g and 0.75 mg/g, respectively, while the column study indicated that the total capacity of boron and manganese was equal to 1.89 mg/g and 0.102 mg/g, respectively. The very good applicability of the Langmuir isotherm at 25 °C suggested the monolayer coverage of the boron species onto the hybrid chitosan-zirconium hydrogel with a maximum adsorptive capacity of 2 mg/g. The amounts of boron and manganese in purified water could be decreased to less than 1 mg/dm3 and 0.05 mg/dm3, respectively, starting from the initial concentration of boron equal to 24.7 mg/dm3 and manganese equal to 3.0 mg/dm3 in FGD wastewater. Selective desorption of boron from the loaded bed was favorable when a NaOH solution was used, while manganese was preferentially eluted with a HCl solution. It is important to note that such an innovative method was investigated for the first time by testing borax recovery from wastewater in terms of an eco-technological perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Efficient Removal of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Using Oil Palm Bio-Waste/MWCNTs Reinforced PVA Hydrogel Composites: Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Modeling
Polymers 2020, 12(2), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12020430 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel are still restricted for some applications because their lower mechanical strength and thermal stability. The PVA-based composites are drawing attention for the removal of heavy metals based on their specific functionality in adsorption process. The main objective of this [...] Read more.
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel are still restricted for some applications because their lower mechanical strength and thermal stability. The PVA-based composites are drawing attention for the removal of heavy metals based on their specific functionality in adsorption process. The main objective of this work is to synthesize oil palm bio-waste (OPB)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced PVA hydrogels in the presence of N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator via simple in-situ polymerization technique. The as-prepared reinforced nanocomposites were characterized by FESEM, BET surface area, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), TGA and FTIR analysis. The possible influence of OPB and MWCNTs on the tensile strength, elongation at break and elastic modulus of the samples were investigated. It was found that reinforced nanocomposites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties as compared to non-reinforced material. The evaluation of reinforced nanocomposites was tested by the removal of Pb(II) aqueous solutions in a batch adsorption system. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was used to illustrate the adsorption kinetic results and Langmuir isotherm was more suitable to fit the equilibrium results providing maximum adsorption capacities. The evaluation of thermodynamic parameters describes the spontaneous, endothermic and chemisorption adsorption process while activation energy reveals the physical adsorption mechanism. Therefore, the coordination effects among OPB, MWCNTs and PVA polymer hydrogels can produce a promising adsorbent material for wastewater treatment applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Enhancement of Flux Performance in PTFE Membranes for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation
Polymers 2020, 12(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12020345 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
This work focused on enhancing the flux on hydrophobic polymeric membranes aimed for direct contact membrane distillation desalination (DCMD) process without compromising salt rejection efficiency. Successful coating of commercial porous poly-tetrafluoroethylene membranes with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was achieved by solution dipping followed by [...] Read more.
This work focused on enhancing the flux on hydrophobic polymeric membranes aimed for direct contact membrane distillation desalination (DCMD) process without compromising salt rejection efficiency. Successful coating of commercial porous poly-tetrafluoroethylene membranes with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was achieved by solution dipping followed by a cross-linking step. The modified membranes were evaluated for their performance in DCMD, in terms of water flux and salt rejection. A series of different PVA concentration dipping solutions were used, and the results indicated that there was an optimum concentration after which the membranes became hydrophilic and unsuitable for use in membrane distillation. Best performing membranes were achieved under the specific experimental conditions, water flux 12.2 L·m-2·h-1 [LMH] with a salt rejection of 99.9%. Compared to the pristine membrane, the flux was enhanced by a factor of 2.7. The results seemed to indicate that introducing hydrophilic characteristics in a certain amount to a hydrophobic membrane could significantly enhance the membrane distillation (MD) performance without compromising salt rejection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Magnetic Template Anion Polyacrylamide–Polydopamine-Fe3O4 Combined with Ultraviolet/H2O2 for the Rapid Enrichment and Degradation of Diclofenac Sodium from Aqueous Environment
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010072 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
In this study, a novel system was set up by preparing a magnetic flocculant combining with ultraviolet/H2O2 to realize the rapid enrichment and degradation of diclofenac sodium (DCFS). For the magnetic flocculant, template anion polyacrylamide (TAPAM) with anion micro-block structure [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel system was set up by preparing a magnetic flocculant combining with ultraviolet/H2O2 to realize the rapid enrichment and degradation of diclofenac sodium (DCFS). For the magnetic flocculant, template anion polyacrylamide (TAPAM) with anion micro-block structure was prepared. Thereafter, polydopamine was used to modify TAPAM, Fe3O4 nanoparticles was grafted to the modified TAPAM by chelation, named template anion polyacrylamide-polydopamine-Fe3O4 (TAPAM-PDA-Fe3O4). Furthermore, the TAPAM-PDA-Fe3O4 preparation protocol was optimized by the response surface method (RSM). In the DCFS enrichment section, the rapid separation of flocs from water was realized by an external magnetic field and it indicated that the π–π stacking effect was dominant in neutral/alkaline condition, whereas charge neutralization was favored in acidic conditions. Meanwhile, a DCFS enrichment kinetic curve was much fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and DCFS enrichment isothermal curve was close to the Freundlich isothermal model, indicating the dependence of DCFS quantity enriched by TAPAM-PDA-Fe3O4 and a multilayer heterogeneous enrichment process. The degradation experiment confirmed that DCFS was effectively degraded by ultraviolet/H2O2/TAPAM-PDA-Fe3O4 and the maximum value of DCFS degradation efficiency reached 98.1%. Furthermore, the regeneration experiment showed that the enrichment and degradation efficiency of DCFS could maintain a relatively high level in the initial three recycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Preparation of Chitosan/Nano-Activated Carbon Composite Beads Aminated with (3-Aminopropyl)Triethoxysilane for Adsorption of Acetaminophen from Aqueous Solutions
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101701 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
A composite chitosan/nano-activated carbon (CS-NAC) aminated by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) was prepared in the form of beads and applied for the removal of acetaminophen from aqueous solutions. NAC and APTES concentrations were optimized to obtain a suitable adsorbent structure for enhanced removal of the [...] Read more.
A composite chitosan/nano-activated carbon (CS-NAC) aminated by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) was prepared in the form of beads and applied for the removal of acetaminophen from aqueous solutions. NAC and APTES concentrations were optimized to obtain a suitable adsorbent structure for enhanced removal of the pharmaceutical. The aminated adsorbent (CS-NAC-APTES beads) prepared with 40% w/w NAC and 2% v/v APTES showed higher adsorption capacity (407.83 mg/g) than CS-NAC beads (278.4 mg/g). Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis demonstrated that the surface area of the CS-NAC-APTES beads was larger than that of CS-NAC beads (1.16 times). The adsorption process was well fitted by the Freundlich model (R2 > 0.95), suggesting a multilayer adsorption. The kinetic study also substantiated that the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.98) was in better agreement with the experimental data. Finally, it was proved that the prepared beads can be recycled (by washing with NaOH solution) at least 5 times before detectable performance loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Assembly of Soft Electrodes and Ion Exchange Membranes for Capacitive Deionization
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101556 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
The responsible use of water, as well as its reuse and purification, has been a major problem for decades now. In this work, we study a method for adsorbing ions from aqueous solutions on charged interfaces using highly porous electrodes. This water purification [...] Read more.
The responsible use of water, as well as its reuse and purification, has been a major problem for decades now. In this work, we study a method for adsorbing ions from aqueous solutions on charged interfaces using highly porous electrodes. This water purification process is based on the electric double layer concept, using the method known as capacitive deionization (CDI): If we pump salty solutions through the volume comprised between two porous electrodes while applying a potential difference to them, ions present in the solution are partially removed and trapped on the electrode surfaces. It has been well established that the use of carbon electrodes in combination with ion exchange membranes (membrane-CDI) improves the efficiency of the method above that achieved with bare activated carbon. Another approach that has been tested is based on coating the carbon with polyelectrolyte layers, converting them into “soft electrodes” (SEs). Here we investigate the improvement found when combining SEs with membranes, and it is shown that the amount of ions adsorbed and the ratio between ions removed and electrons transported reach superior values, also associated with a faster kinetics of the process. The method is applied to the partial desalination of up to 100 mM NaCl solutions, something hardly achievable with bare or membrane-covered electrodes. A theoretical model is presented for the ion transport in the presence of both the membrane and the polyelectrolyte coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Cost Estimation of Polymeric Adsorbents
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050925 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
One of the most promising techniques of recent research is adsorption. This technique attracts great attention in environmental technology, especially in the decontamination of water and wastewaters. A “hidden” point of the above is the cost of adsorbents. As can be easily observed [...] Read more.
One of the most promising techniques of recent research is adsorption. This technique attracts great attention in environmental technology, especially in the decontamination of water and wastewaters. A “hidden” point of the above is the cost of adsorbents. As can be easily observed in the literature, there is not any mention about the synthesis cost of adsorbents. What are the basic criteria with which an industry can select an adsorbent? What is the synthesis (recipe) cost? What is the energy demand to synthesize an efficient material? All of these are questions which have not been answered, until now. The reason for this is that the estimation of adsorbents’ cost is relatively difficult, because too many cost factors are involved (labor cost, raw materials cost, energy cost, tax cost, etc.). In this work, the first estimation cost of adsorbents is presented, taking into consideration all of the major factors which influence the final value. To be more comparable, the adsorbents used are from a list of polymeric materials which are already synthesized and tested in our laboratory. All of them are polymeric materials with chitosan as a substrate, which is efficiently used for the removal of heavy metal ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

Review
A Review on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes for Water Purification
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081252 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 145 | Viewed by 8696
Abstract
Sustainable and affordable supply of clean, safe, and adequate water is one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Membrane separation technology is one of the most cost-effective and widely applied technologies for water purification. Polymeric membranes such as cellulose-based (CA) membranes [...] Read more.
Sustainable and affordable supply of clean, safe, and adequate water is one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Membrane separation technology is one of the most cost-effective and widely applied technologies for water purification. Polymeric membranes such as cellulose-based (CA) membranes and thin-film composite (TFC) membranes have dominated the industry since 1980. Although further development of polymeric membranes for better performance is laborious, the research findings and sustained progress in inorganic membrane development have grown fast and solve some remaining problems. In addition to conventional ceramic metal oxide membranes, membranes prepared by graphene oxide (GO), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and mixed matrix materials (MMMs) have attracted enormous attention due to their desirable properties such as tunable pore structure, excellent chemical, mechanical, and thermal tolerance, good salt rejection and/or high water permeability. This review provides insight into synthesis approaches and structural properties of recent reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes which are used to retain dissolved species such as heavy metals, electrolytes, and inorganic salts in various aqueous solutions. A specific focus has been placed on introducing and comparing water purification performance of different classes of polymeric and ceramic membranes in related water treatment industries. Furthermore, the development challenges and research opportunities of organic and inorganic membranes are discussed and the further perspectives are analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Erratum
Erratum: Synthesis, Characterization, and Analysis of Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Application for Aluminum Removal. Polymers 2020, 12, 1305
Polymers 2020, 12(8), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081702 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 720
Abstract
The authors wish to make a change to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Technical Note
Synthesis of Modified Starch/Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite for Treating Textile Wastewater
Polymers 2020, 12(2), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12020289 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
In this work, we demonstrated a strategy to design a modified starch/polyvinyl alcohol composite (CCSP), which was employed as a highly efficient and economical fixed-bed adsorbent for treating textile wastewater. Characterization revealed that most of the CCSP was shaped with the morphology of [...] Read more.
In this work, we demonstrated a strategy to design a modified starch/polyvinyl alcohol composite (CCSP), which was employed as a highly efficient and economical fixed-bed adsorbent for treating textile wastewater. Characterization revealed that most of the CCSP was shaped with the morphology of sphericity, and had some water swelling properties. The crystallinity of the CCSP was lower than that of native starch and polyvinyl alcohol, and its average particle size gradually increased with the dosage increase of cationic starch in the preparation. Adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption capacities of CCSP were more than 605 and 539 mg/g for Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Orange 131, respectively, which were over 10 times larger than that of commercial activated carbon (AC). The mixture adsorbent composed of CCSP and AC could remove starch, polyvinyl alcohol, and dyes from textile wastewater completely and simultaneously combined with the fixed-bed technique, and its adsorption capacity was conducted as a function of the bed height and flow rate. Most importantly, the disabled mixture adsorbent could be converted into regenerated AC through a chemical activation process, thereby avoiding the production of solid waste. This study will provide a new efficient green sustainable method for treating textile wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Water and Wastewater Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop