Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 31290

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Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Institute, University of Alicante, Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03690 Alicante, Spain
Interests: carbon materials; zeolites; metal nanoparticles; surface chemistry; high pressure adsorption; porous materials; heterogeneous catalysis; photocatalysis; electrocatalysis; energy storage; electrochemical capacitors; batteries; fuel cells electrodes; hydrogen storage; hydrogen production; biomass conversion; pollutant removal
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Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Institute, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain
Interests: environmental catalysis; heterogeneous catalysts; metal nanoparticles; biomass valorization; nanomaterials; carbon materials; hydrogen production
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus Universitario de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: active drug targeting; biomedical applications of colloids and nanoparticles; biopharmacy; drug absorption; drug delivery; drug release; formulation and evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms; hyperthermia-based anticancer treatment; in vivo fate of nanoplatforms; ligand-receptor interactions and nanoparticle endocytosis; long-circulating nanoparticles; magnetic colloids; nanoteranosis; passive drug targeting; PEGylated nanoparticles; pharmaceutical technology; pharmacokinetics; stimuli sensitive nanostructures; surface chemistry and interface science; surface functionalization of nanoparticles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Guest Editors, we are pleased to inform you of the Special Issue “Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science” to be published in Nanomaterials (EISSN 2079-4991, Published by MDPI) (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/nanomaterials), an international, scientific, peer-reviewed open-access journal providing a high-visibility platform for research findings in material science. Nanomaterials has an Impact Factor of 5.076, and it is indexed within Scopus, SCIE (Web of Science), PubMed, PMC, CAPlus/SciFinder, Inspec, and many other databases. Journal Rank: JCR - Q1 (Physics, Applied).

The aim of this Special Issue is to compile original papers and review articles reporting on the recent breakthroughs achieved in the field of nanomaterials, including but not limited to:

  • Synthesis of advanced nanomaterials;
  • Nanomaterials for energy and environmental applications;
  • Nanostructured catalysts, electrocatalysts and photocatalysts;
  • Electroactive nanomaterials;
  • Catalysis;
  • Modelling and electrochemistry;
  • Nanomedicines.

Our Special Issue is keen to receive and publish high-quality submissions on any subject relevant to nanomaterials. For well-prepared papers and those approved for further publication, authors might be eligible for discounts for publications. You are welcome to send short proposals for submissions of feature papers to our Editorial Office ([email protected]) or to contact the Guest Editors of this Special Issue to discuss or comment.

We believe that we can make a great contribution to the academic community and our discipline by presenting our research together in a single volume. Submissions will first be evaluated by Guest Editors. Subsequently, selected papers will be thoroughly and rigorously peer reviewed. All published papers in this Special Issue will be compiled into a printed edition book after the deadline and will be well promoted.

The deadline for manuscript submissions is 29 July 2022.

We are looking forward to receiving your valuable contribution to this Special Issue!

Prof. Dr. Nikolaos Dimitratos
Prof. Dr. Diego Cazorla-Amorós
Dr. Miriam Navlani-García
Prof. Dr. Jose L. Arias
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • energy and environmental applications
  • catalysis
  • modelling and electrochemistry
  • nanomedicines

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 8092 KiB  
Article
Clindamycin-Loaded Nanosized Calcium Phosphates Powders as a Carrier of Active Substances
by Dagmara Słota, Karina Piętak, Wioletta Florkiewicz, Josef Jampilek, Agnieszka Tomala, Mateusz M. Urbaniak, Agata Tomaszewska, Karolina Rudnicka and Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(9), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13091469 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (CaPs) are one of the building components of the inorganic part of bones. Synthetic CaPs are frequently used as materials for filling bone defects in the form of pastes or composites; however, their porous structure allows modification with active [...] Read more.
Bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics (CaPs) are one of the building components of the inorganic part of bones. Synthetic CaPs are frequently used as materials for filling bone defects in the form of pastes or composites; however, their porous structure allows modification with active substances and, thus, subsequent use as a drug carrier for the controlled release of active substances. In this study, four different ceramic powders were compared: commercial hydroxyapatite (HA), TCP, brushite, as well as HA obtained by wet precipitation methods. The ceramic powders were subjected to physicochemical analysis, including FTIR, XRD, and determination of Ca/P molar ratio or porosity. These techniques confirmed that the materials were phase-pure, and the molar ratios of calcium and phosphorus elements were in accordance with the literature. This confirmed the validity of the selected synthesis methods. CaPs were then modified with the antibiotic clindamycin. Drug release was determined on HPLC, and antimicrobial properties were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. The specific surface area of the ceramic has been demonstrated to be a factor in drug release efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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15 pages, 2227 KiB  
Article
Antifouling Systems Based on a Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane-Based Hexyl Imidazolium Salt Adsorbed on Copper Nanoparticles Supported on Titania
by Alessandro Presentato, Eleonora La Greca, Luca Consentino, Rosa Alduina, Leonarda Francesca Liotta and Michelangelo Gruttadauria
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(7), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13071291 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
The reaction of octakis(3-chloropropyl)octasilsesquioxane with four equivalents of 1-hexylimidazole or 1-decylimidazole gave two products labelled as HQ-POSS (hexyl-imidazolium quaternized POSS) and DQ-POSS (decyl-imidazolium quaternized POSS) as regioisomer mixtures. An investigation of the biological activity of these two compounds revealed the higher antimicrobial performances [...] Read more.
The reaction of octakis(3-chloropropyl)octasilsesquioxane with four equivalents of 1-hexylimidazole or 1-decylimidazole gave two products labelled as HQ-POSS (hexyl-imidazolium quaternized POSS) and DQ-POSS (decyl-imidazolium quaternized POSS) as regioisomer mixtures. An investigation of the biological activity of these two compounds revealed the higher antimicrobial performances of HQ-POSS against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, proving its broad-spectrum activity. Due to its very viscous nature, HQ-POSS was adsorbed in variable amounts on the surface of biologically active oxides to gain advantages regarding the expendability of such formulations from an applicative perspective. Titania and 5 wt% Cu on titania were used as supports. The materials 10HQ-POSS/Ti and 15HQ-POSS/5CuTi strongly inhibited the ability of Pseudomonas PS27 cells—a bacterial strain described for its ability to handle very toxic organic solvents and perfluorinated compounds—to grow as planktonic cells. Moreover, the best formulations (i.e., 10HQ-POSS/Ti and 15HQ-POSS/5CuTi) could prevent Pseudomonas PS27 biofilm formation at a certain concentration (250 μg mL−1) which greatly impaired bacterial planktonic growth. Specifically, 15HQ-POSS/5CuTi completely impaired cell adhesion, thus successfully prejudicing biofilm formation and proving its suitability as a potential antifouling agent. Considering that most studies deal with quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) with long alkyl chains (>10 carbon atoms), the results reported here on hexylimidazolium-based POSS further deepen the knowledge of QAS formulations which can be used as antifouling compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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26 pages, 12975 KiB  
Communication
CO2 Hydrogenation: Na Doping Promotes CO and Hydrocarbon Formation over Ru/m-ZrO2 at Elevated Pressures in Gas Phase Media
by Grant Seuser, Raechel Staffel, Yagmur Hocaoglu, Gabriel F. Upton, Elijah S. Garcia, Donald C. Cronauer, A. Jeremy Kropf, Michela Martinelli and Gary Jacobs
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(7), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13071155 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Sodium-promoted monoclinic zirconia supported ruthenium catalysts were tested for CO2 hydrogenation at 20 bar and a H2:CO2 ratio of 3:1. Although increasing sodium promotion, from 2.5% to 5% by weight, slightly decreased CO2 conversion (14% to 10%), it [...] Read more.
Sodium-promoted monoclinic zirconia supported ruthenium catalysts were tested for CO2 hydrogenation at 20 bar and a H2:CO2 ratio of 3:1. Although increasing sodium promotion, from 2.5% to 5% by weight, slightly decreased CO2 conversion (14% to 10%), it doubled the selectivity to both CO (~36% to ~71%) and chain growth products (~4% to ~8%) remarkably and reduced the methane selectivity by two-thirds (~60% to ~21%). For CO2 hydrogenation during in situ DRIFTS under atmospheric pressure, it was revealed that Na increases the catalyst basicity and suppresses the reactivity of Ru sites. Higher basicity facilitates CO2 adsorption, weakens the C–H bond of the formate intermediate promoting CO formation, and inhibits methanation occurring on ruthenium nanoparticle surfaces. The suppression of excessive hydrogenation increases the chain growth probability. Decelerated reduction during H2-TPR/TPR-MS and H2-TPR-EXAFS/XANES at the K-edge of ruthenium indicates that sodium is in contact with ruthenium. A comparison of the XANES spectra of unpromoted and Na-promoted catalysts after H2 reduction showed no evidence of a promoting effect involving electron charge transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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15 pages, 2889 KiB  
Article
Lindqvist@Nanoporous MOF-Based Catalyst for Effective Desulfurization of Fuels
by Simone Fernandes, Daniela Flores, Daniel Silva, Isabel Santos-Vieira, Fátima Mirante, Carlos M. Granadeiro and Salete S. Balula
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(16), 2887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162887 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
An effective and sustainable oxidative desulfurization process for treating a multicomponent model fuel was successfully developed using as a heterogeneous catalyst a composite material containing as an active center the europium Lindqvist [Eu(W5O18)2]9− (abbreviated as EuW [...] Read more.
An effective and sustainable oxidative desulfurization process for treating a multicomponent model fuel was successfully developed using as a heterogeneous catalyst a composite material containing as an active center the europium Lindqvist [Eu(W5O18)2]9− (abbreviated as EuW10) encapsulated into the nanoporous ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate framework) support. The EuW10@ZIF-8 composite was obtained through an impregnation procedure, and its successful preparation was confirmed by various characterization techniques (FT-IR, XRD, SEM/EDS, ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of the composite and the isolated EuW10 was evaluated in the desulfurization of a multicomponent model fuel containing dibenzothiophene derivatives (DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT) with a total sulfur concentration of 1500 ppm. Oxidative desulfurization was performed using an ionic liquid as extraction solvent and aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic results showed a remarkable desulfurization performance, with 99.5 and 94.7% sulfur removal in the first 180 min, for the homogeneous active center EuW10 and the heterogeneous EuW10@ZIF-8 catalysts, respectively. Furthermore, the stability of the nanocomposite catalyst was investigated by reusing and recycling processes. A superior retention of catalyst activity in consecutive desulfurization cycles was observed in the recycling studies when compared with the reusing experiments. Nevertheless, the nanostructure of ZIF-8 incorporating the active POM (polyoxometalate) was shown to be highly suitable for guaranteeing the absence of POM leaching, although structural modification was found for ZIF-8 after catalytic use that did not influenced catalytic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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14 pages, 21882 KiB  
Article
Controlled Synthesis of Platinum and Silver Nanoparticles Using Multivalent Ligands
by Suguna Perumal, Raji Atchudan, Eckart Rühl and Christina Graf
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(13), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12132294 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Here, the controlled formation of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using amine-functionalized multivalent ligands are reported. The effects of reaction temperature and ligand multivalency on the growth kinetics, size, and shape of PtNPs and AgNPs were systematically studied by performing a [...] Read more.
Here, the controlled formation of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using amine-functionalized multivalent ligands are reported. The effects of reaction temperature and ligand multivalency on the growth kinetics, size, and shape of PtNPs and AgNPs were systematically studied by performing a stepwise and a one-step process. PtNPs and AgNPs were prepared in the presence of amine ligands using platinum (II) acetylacetonate and silver (I) acetylacetonate, respectively. The effects of ligands and temperature on the formation of PtNPs were studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). For the characterization of AgNPs, additionally, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption was employed. The TEM measurements revealed that PtNPs prepared at different temperatures (160–200 °C, in a stepwise process) are monodispersed and of spherical shape regardless of the ligand multivalency or reaction temperature. In the preparation of PtNPs by the one-step process, ligands affect the shape of the PtNPs, which can be explained by the affinity of the ligands. The TEM and UV-Vis absorption studies on the formation of AgNPs with mono-, di-, and trivalent ligands showed narrower size distributions, while increasing the temperature from 80 °C to 120 °C and with a trivalent ligand in a one-step process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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25 pages, 3842 KiB  
Article
Supramolecular Self-Assembly of Porphyrin and Metallosurfactant as a Drug Nanocontainer Design
by Ruslan R. Kashapov, Yuliya S. Razuvayeva, Svetlana S. Lukashenko, Syumbelya K. Amerhanova, Anna P. Lyubina, Alexandra D. Voloshina, Victor V. Syakaev, Vadim V. Salnikov and Lucia Y. Zakharova
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(12), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12121986 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
The combined method of treating malignant neoplasms using photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy is undoubtedly a promising and highly effective treatment method. The development and establishment of photodynamic cancer therapy is closely related to the creation of sensitizers based on porphyrins. The present study [...] Read more.
The combined method of treating malignant neoplasms using photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy is undoubtedly a promising and highly effective treatment method. The development and establishment of photodynamic cancer therapy is closely related to the creation of sensitizers based on porphyrins. The present study is devoted to the investigation of the spectroscopic, aggregation, and solubilization properties of the supramolecular system based on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TSPP) and lanthanum-containing surfactant (LaSurf) in an aqueous medium. The latter is a complex of lanthanum nitrate and two cationic amphiphilic molecules of 4-aza-1-hexadecylazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide. The mixed TSPP–LaSurf complexes can spontaneously assemble into various nanostructures capable of binding the anticancer drug cisplatin. Morphological behavior, stability, and ability to drug binding of nanostructures can be tailored by varying the molar ratio and the concentration of components. The guest binding is shown to be additional factor controlling structural rearrangements and properties of the supramolecular TSPP–LaSurf complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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14 pages, 1572 KiB  
Article
Transport and Retention of Poly(Acrylic Acid-co-Maleic Acid) Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles in Porous Media: Effect of Input Concentration, Ionic Strength and Grain Size
by Rawan Mlih, Yan Liang, Miaoyue Zhang, Etelka Tombácz, Roland Bol and Erwin Klumpp
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(9), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12091536 - 02 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
Understanding the physicochemical factors affecting nanoparticle transport in porous media is critical for their environmental application. Water-saturated column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of input concentration (Co), ionic strength (IS), and sand grain size on the transport of poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) [...] Read more.
Understanding the physicochemical factors affecting nanoparticle transport in porous media is critical for their environmental application. Water-saturated column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of input concentration (Co), ionic strength (IS), and sand grain size on the transport of poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) coated magnetite nanoparticles (PAM@MNP). Mass recoveries in the column effluent ranged from 45.2 to 99.3%. The highest relative retention of PAM@MNP was observed for the lowest Co. Smaller Co also resulted in higher relative retention (39.8%) when IS increased to 10 mM. However, relative retention became much less sensitive to solution IS as Co increased. The high mobility is attributed to the PAM coating provoking steric stability of PAM@MNP against homoaggregation. PAM@MNP retention was about 10-fold higher for smaller grain sizes, i.e., 240 µm and 350 µm versus 607 µm. The simulated maximum retained concentration on the solid phase (Smax) and retention rate coefficient (k1) increased with decreasing Co and grain sizes, reflecting higher retention rates at these parameters. The study revealed under various IS for the first time the high mobility premise of polymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles at realistic (<10 mg L−1) environmental concentrations, thereby highlighting an untapped potential for novel environmental PAM@MNP application usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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23 pages, 3785 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Fe-TiO2 Solar Photocatalysts on Porous Platforms for Water Purification
by Maria Leonor Matias, Ana Pimentel, Ana S. Reis-Machado, Joana Rodrigues, Jonas Deuermeier, Elvira Fortunato, Rodrigo Martins and Daniela Nunes
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(6), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12061005 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
In this study, polyethylene glycol-modified titanium dioxide (PEG-modified TiO2) nanopowders were prepared using a fast solvothermal method under microwave irradiation, and without any further calcination processes. These nanopowders were further impregnated on porous polymeric platforms by drop-casting. The effect of adding [...] Read more.
In this study, polyethylene glycol-modified titanium dioxide (PEG-modified TiO2) nanopowders were prepared using a fast solvothermal method under microwave irradiation, and without any further calcination processes. These nanopowders were further impregnated on porous polymeric platforms by drop-casting. The effect of adding iron with different molar ratios (1, 2, and 5%) of iron precursor was investigated. The characterization of the produced materials was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Optical characterization of all the materials was also carried out. SEM showed that pure TiO2 and Fe-TiO2 nanostructures presented similar nanosized and spherical particles, which uniformly covered the substrates. From XRD, pure TiO2 anatase was obtained for all nanopowders produced, which was further confirmed by Raman spectroscopy on the impregnated substrates. XPS and UV–VIS absorption spectroscopy emission spectra revealed that the presence of Fe ions on the Fe-TiO2 nanostructures led to the introduction of new intermediate energy levels, as well as defects that contributed to an enhancement in the photocatalytic performance. The photocatalytic results under solar radiation demonstrated increased photocatalytic activity in the presence of the 5% Fe-TiO2 nanostructures (Rhodamine B degradation of 85% after 3.5 h, compared to 74% with pure TiO2 for the same exposure time). The photodegradation rate of RhB dye with the Fe-TiO2 substrate was 1.5-times faster than pure TiO2. Reusability tests were also performed. The approach developed in this work originated novel functionalized photocatalytic platforms, which were revealed to be promising for the removal of organic dyes from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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17 pages, 4343 KiB  
Article
Chitosan-Crosslinked Low Molecular Weight PEI-Conjugated Iron Oxide Nanoparticle for Safe and Effective DNA Delivery to Breast Cancer Cells
by Guanyou Lin, Jianxi Huang, Mengyuan Zhang, Shanshan Chen and Miqin Zhang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040584 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2608
Abstract
Breast cancer has attracted tremendous research interest in treatment development as one of the major threats to public health. The use of non-viral carriers for therapeutic DNA delivery has shown promise in treating various cancer types, including breast cancer, due to their high [...] Read more.
Breast cancer has attracted tremendous research interest in treatment development as one of the major threats to public health. The use of non-viral carriers for therapeutic DNA delivery has shown promise in treating various cancer types, including breast cancer, due to their high DNA loading capacity, high cell transfection efficiency, and design versatility. However, cytotoxicity and large sizes of non-viral DNA carriers often raise safety concerns and hinder their applications in the clinic. Here we report the development of a novel nanoparticle formulation (termed NP-Chi-xPEI) that can safely and effectively deliver DNA into breast cancer cells for successful transfection. The nanoparticle is composed of an iron oxide core coated with low molecular weight (800 Da) polyethyleneimine crosslinked with chitosan via biodegradable disulfide bonds. The NP-Chi-xPEI can condense DNA into a small nanoparticle with the overall size of less than 100 nm and offer full DNA protection. Its biodegradable coating of small-molecular weight xPEI and mildly positive surface charge confer extra biocompatibility. NP-Chi-xPEI-mediated DNA delivery was shown to achieve high transfection efficiency across multiple breast cancer cell lines with significantly lower cytotoxicity as compared to the commercial transfection agent Lipofectamine 3000. With demonstrated favorable physicochemical properties and functionality, NP-Chi-xPEI may serve as a reliable vehicle to deliver DNA to breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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15 pages, 6090 KiB  
Article
Vancomycin-Loaded Furriness Amino Magnetic Nanospheres for Rapid Detection of Gram-Positive Water Bacterial Contamination
by Ahmed M. Azzam, Mohamed A. Shenashen, Mohamed S. Selim, Bayaumy Mostafa, Ahmed Tawfik and Sherif A. El-Safty
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030510 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Bacterial pathogens pose high threat to public health worldwide. Different types of nanomaterials have been synthesized for the rapid detection and elimination of pathogens from environmental samples. However, the selectivity of these materials remains challenging, because target bacterial pathogens commonly exist in complex [...] Read more.
Bacterial pathogens pose high threat to public health worldwide. Different types of nanomaterials have been synthesized for the rapid detection and elimination of pathogens from environmental samples. However, the selectivity of these materials remains challenging, because target bacterial pathogens commonly exist in complex samples at ultralow concentrations. In this study, we fabricated novel furry amino magnetic poly-L-ornithine (PLO)/amine-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-COOH/vancomycin (VCM) (AM-PPV) nanospheres with high-loading VCM for vehicle tracking and the highly efficient capture of pathogens. The magnetic core was coated with organosilica and functionalized with cilia. The core consisted of PEG/PLO loaded with VCM conjugated to Gram-positive bacterial cell membranes, forming hydrogen bonds with terminal peptides. The characterization of AM-PPV nanospheres revealed an average particle size of 56 nm. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) micrographs showed well-controlled spherical AM-PPV nanospheres with an average size of 56 nm. The nanospheres were relatively rough and contained an additional 12.4 nm hydrodynamic layer of PLO/PEG/VCM, which provided additional stability in the suspension. The furry AM-PPV nanospheres exhibited a significant capture efficiency (>90%) and a high selectivity for detecting Bacillus cereus (employed as a model for Gram-positive bacteria) within 15 min, even in the presence of other biocompatible pathogens. Moreover, AM-PPV nanospheres rapidly and accurately detected B. cereus at levels less than 10 CFU/mL. The furry nano-design can potentially satisfy the increasing demand for the rapid and sensitive detection of pathogens in clinical and environmental samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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14 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
L-Cysteine as an Irreversible Inhibitor of the Peroxidase-Mimic Catalytic Activity of 2-Dimensional Ni-Based Nanozymes
by Piyumi Dinusha Liyanage, Pabudi Weerathunge, Mandeep Singh, Vipul Bansal and Rajesh Ramanathan
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051285 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2977
Abstract
The ability to modulate the catalytic activity of inorganic nanozymes is of high interest. In particular, understanding the interactions of inhibitor molecules with nanozymes can bring them one step closer to the natural enzymes and has thus started to attract intense interest. To [...] Read more.
The ability to modulate the catalytic activity of inorganic nanozymes is of high interest. In particular, understanding the interactions of inhibitor molecules with nanozymes can bring them one step closer to the natural enzymes and has thus started to attract intense interest. To date, a few reversible inhibitors of the nanozyme activity have been reported. However, there are no reports of irreversible inhibitor molecules that can permanently inhibit the activity of nanozymes. In the current work, we show the ability of L-cysteine to act as an irreversible inhibitor to permanently block the nanozyme activity of 2-dimensional (2D) NiO nanosheets. Determination of the steady state kinetic parameters allowed us to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic inhibition process. Further, based on the irreversible catalytic inhibition capability of L-cysteine, we demonstrate a highly specific sensor for the detection of this biologically important molecule. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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Review

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22 pages, 3659 KiB  
Review
Lipid-Based Nano-Sized Cargos as a Promising Strategy in Bone Complications: A Review
by Supandeep Singh Hallan, Jhaleh Amirian, Agnese Brangule and Dace Bandere
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071146 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3690
Abstract
Bone metastasis has been considered the fatal phase of cancers, which remains incurable and to be a challenge due to the non-availability of the ideal treatment strategy. Unlike bone cancer, bone metastasis involves the spreading of the tumor cells to the bones from [...] Read more.
Bone metastasis has been considered the fatal phase of cancers, which remains incurable and to be a challenge due to the non-availability of the ideal treatment strategy. Unlike bone cancer, bone metastasis involves the spreading of the tumor cells to the bones from different origins. Bone metastasis generally originates from breast and prostate cancers. The possibility of bone metastasis is highly attributable to its physiological milieu susceptible to tumor growth. The treatment of bone-related diseases has multiple complications, including bone breakage, reduced quality of life, spinal cord or nerve compression, and pain. However, anticancer active agents have failed to maintain desired therapeutic concentrations at the target site; hence, uptake of the drug takes place at a non-target site responsible for the toxicity at the cellular level. Interestingly, lipid-based drug delivery systems have become the center of interest for researchers, thanks to their biocompatible and bio-mimetic nature. These systems possess a great potential to improve precise bone targeting without affecting healthy tissues. The lipid nano-sized systems are not only limited to delivering active agents but also genes/peptide sequences/siRNA, bisphosphonates, etc. Additionally, lipid coating of inorganic nanomaterials such as calcium phosphate is an effective approach against uncontrollable rapid precipitation resulting in reduced colloidal stability and dispersity. This review summarizes the numerous aspects, including development, design, possible applications, challenges, and future perspective of lipid nano-transporters, namely liposomes, exosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), and lipid nanoparticulate gels to treat bone metastasis and induce bone regeneration. Additionally, the economic suitability of these systems has been discussed and different alternatives have been discussed. All in all, through this review we will try to understand how far nanomedicine is from clinical and industrial applications in bone metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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31 pages, 7974 KiB  
Review
Polysaccharides and Metal Nanoparticles for Functional Textiles: A Review
by Marta Fernandes, Jorge Padrão, Ana I. Ribeiro, Rui D. V. Fernandes, Liliana Melro, Talita Nicolau, Behnaz Mehravani, Cátia Alves, Rui Rodrigues and Andrea Zille
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(6), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12061006 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 4456
Abstract
Nanotechnology is a powerful tool for engineering functional materials that has the potential to transform textiles into high-performance, value-added products. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the development of functional textiles using metal nanoparticles (MNPs). The incorporation of MNPs in [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is a powerful tool for engineering functional materials that has the potential to transform textiles into high-performance, value-added products. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the development of functional textiles using metal nanoparticles (MNPs). The incorporation of MNPs in textiles allows for the obtention of multifunctional properties, such as ultraviolet (UV) protection, self-cleaning, and electrical conductivity, as well as antimicrobial, antistatic, antiwrinkle, and flame retardant properties, without compromising the inherent characteristics of the textile. Environmental sustainability is also one of the main motivations in development and innovation in the textile industry. Thus, the synthesis of MNPs using ecofriendly sources, such as polysaccharides, is of high importance. The main functions of polysaccharides in these processes are the reduction and stabilization of MNPs, as well as the adhesion of MNPs onto fabrics. This review covers the major research attempts to obtain textiles with different functional properties using polysaccharides and MNPs. The main polysaccharides reported include chitosan, alginate, starch, cyclodextrins, and cellulose, with silver, zinc, copper, and titanium being the most explored MNPs. The potential applications of these functionalized textiles are also reported, and they include healthcare (wound dressing, drug release), protection (antimicrobial activity, UV protection, flame retardant), and environmental remediation (catalysts). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nanomaterials Science)
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