Special Issue "Nanoparticles for Medical Applications: Progress in Surface Modification"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Marta Miola
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Guest Editor
Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Torino, Italy
Interests: Bioactive glasses/glass-ceramics; antibacterial materials; composites; magnetic materials; inorganic nanoparticles.
Prof. Enrica Vernè
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; bioactive glasses; antibacterial materials; surface functionalization; magnetic materials; nanomaterials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last years, nanoparticles attracted the researchers interest due to their exclusive chemical and physical properties. In medical applications, different kind of nanoparticles have been investigated, such as magnetic, metallic, polymeric, silica, fluorescent (quantum dots) and biologically derived nanoparticles; moreover, several progresses have been made regarding their synthesis method. However, more efforts are still required to improve and tailor the nanoparticles surface properties.

Surface features are extremely important since they can influence nanoparticles dispersion, biocompatibility, solubility, interaction with biomolecules and cellular internalization. Functionalization with small molecules, surfactants, dendrimers and polymers, is one of the most used strategy to protect nanoparticles against agglomeration, improve their biocompatibility, tailor the biodegradability and impart desired properties. Another strategy to modify the nanoparticles surface features is to coat them with thin organic or inorganic layers.

The specific challenge of this special issue is to survey and outline the progress on the nanoparticles surface optimization, focusing the attention on the interaction between nanoparticles and chemical moieties, and their characterization in physiological conditions. For this reason, it is with immense pleasure that we invite authors to submit original research paper or reviews for this Special Issue.

Potential topics concern, but are not limited to:

  • Nanoparticles surface functionalization
  • Nanoparticles organic/inorganic coating
  • Nanoparticles interaction with biomolecules
  • Interaction between nanoparticles and biological systems
  • Role of nanoparticles surface in the cell internalization
  • Biocompatibility of nanoparticles

 

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles surface functionalization
  • Nanoparticles coatings
  • Nanoparticles-cells interaction
  • Inorganic nanoparticles
  • Organic Nanoparticles
  • Biologically derived nanoparticles
  • Therapy and diagnosis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Plasmon-Emitter Hybrid Nanostructures of Gold Nanorod-Quantum Dots with Regulated Energy Transfer as a Universal Nano-Sensor for One-step Biomarker Detection
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030444 - 01 Mar 2020
Abstract
Recently, biosensing based on weak coupling in plasmon-emitter hybrid nanostructures exhibits the merits of simplicity and high sensitivity, and attracts increasing attention as an emerging nano-sensor. In this study, we propose an innovative plasmon-regulated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (plasmon-regulated FRET) sensing strategy based [...] Read more.
Recently, biosensing based on weak coupling in plasmon-emitter hybrid nanostructures exhibits the merits of simplicity and high sensitivity, and attracts increasing attention as an emerging nano-sensor. In this study, we propose an innovative plasmon-regulated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (plasmon-regulated FRET) sensing strategy based on a plasmon-emitter hybrid nanostructure of gold nanorod-quantum dots (Au NR-QDs) by partially modifying QDs onto the surfaces of Au NRs. The Au NR-QDs showed good sensitivity and reversibility against refractive index change. We successfully employed the Au NR-QDs to fabricate nano-sensors for detecting a cancer biomarker of alpha fetoprotein with a limit of detection of 0.30 ng/mL, which displays that the sensitivity of the Au NR-QDs nano-sensor was effectively improved compared with the Au NRs based plasmonic sensing. Additionally, to demonstrate the universality of the plasmon-regulated FRET sensing strategy, another plasmon-emitter hybrid nano-sensor of Au nano-prism-quantum dots (Au NP-QDs) were constructed and applied for detecting a myocardial infarction biomarker of cardiac troponin I. It was first reported that the change of absorption spectra of plasmonic structure in a plasmon-emitter hybrid nanostructure was employed for analytes detection. The plasmon-regulated FRET sensing strategy described herein has potential utility to develop general sensing platforms for chemical and biological analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tumor Targeting by Monoclonal Antibody Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111575 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Tumor-targeted drug-loaded nanocarriers represent innovative and attractive tools for cancer therapy. Several magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were analyzed as potential tumor-targeted drug-loaded nanocarriers after functionalization with anti-Met oncogene (anti-Met/HGFR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and doxorubicin (DOXO). Their cytocompatibility, stability, immunocompetence (immunoprecipitation), and their interactions with [...] Read more.
Tumor-targeted drug-loaded nanocarriers represent innovative and attractive tools for cancer therapy. Several magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were analyzed as potential tumor-targeted drug-loaded nanocarriers after functionalization with anti-Met oncogene (anti-Met/HGFR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and doxorubicin (DOXO). Their cytocompatibility, stability, immunocompetence (immunoprecipitation), and their interactions with cancer cells in vitro (Perl’s staining, confocal microscopy, cytotoxic assays: MTT, real time toxicity) and with tumors in vivo (Perl’s staining) were evaluated. The simplest silica- and calcium-free mAb-loaded MNPs were the most cytocompatible, the most stable, and showed the best immunocompetence and specificity. These mAb-functionalized MNPs specifically interacted with the surface of Met/HGFR-positive cells, and not with Met/HGFR-negative cells; they were not internalized, but they discharged in the targeted cells DOXO, which reached the nucleus, exerting cytotoxicity. The presence of mAbs on DOXO-MNPs significantly increased their cytotoxicity on Met/HGFR-positive cells, while no such effect was detectable on Met/HGFR-negative cells. Bare MNPs were biocompatible in vivo; mAb presence on MNPs induced a better dispersion within the tumor mass when injected in situ in Met/HGFR-positive xenotumors in NOD/SCID-γnull mice. These MNPs may represent a new and promising carrier for in vivo targeted drug delivery, in which applied gradient and alternating magnetic fields can enhance targeting and induce hyperthermia respectively. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Intrinsic Biological Identities of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Coatings: Unexplored Territory for Combinatorial Therapies
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050837 - 27 Apr 2020
Abstract
Over the last 20 years, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been the subject of increasing investigation due to their potential use as theranostic agents. Their unique physical properties (physical identity), ample possibilities for surface modifications (synthetic identity), and the complex dynamics of their [...] Read more.
Over the last 20 years, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been the subject of increasing investigation due to their potential use as theranostic agents. Their unique physical properties (physical identity), ample possibilities for surface modifications (synthetic identity), and the complex dynamics of their interaction with biological systems (biological identity) make IONPs a unique and fruitful resource for developing magnetic field-based therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Like all nanomaterials, IONPs also interact with different cell types in vivo, a characteristic that ultimately determines their activity over the short and long term. Cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (macrophages), dendritic cells (DCs), and endothelial cells (ECs) are engaged in the bulk of IONP encounters in the organism, and also determine IONP biodistribution. Therefore, the biological effects that IONPs trigger in these cells (biological identity) are of utmost importance to better understand and refine the efficacy of IONP-based theranostics. In the present review, which is focused on anti-cancer therapy, we discuss recent findings on the biological identities of IONPs, particularly as concerns their interactions with myeloid, endothelial, and tumor cells. Furthermore, we thoroughly discuss current understandings of the basic molecular mechanisms and complex interactions that govern IONP biological identity, and how these traits could be used as a stepping stone for future research. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Tumor targeting by monoclonal antibody functionalized magnetic nanoparticles
Authors: Oltolina F, Colangelo D, Miletto I, Clemente N, Miola M, Verné E, Prat M and Follenzi A
Abstract: Several magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were analysed as potential tumor-targeted drug-loaded nanocarriers after functionalization with anti-MET/HGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and Doxorubicin (DOXO). The simplest silica- and calcium-free mAb-loaded MNPs were the most cytocompatible (MTT assay), the most stable, showed the best immunocompetence and specificity (immunoprecipitation, confocal immunofluorescence)]. The presence of the mAbs on DOXO-MNPs increased significantly their cytotoxicity on MET/HGFR+ cells, while no such effect was detectable on MET/HGFR- cells (real time toxicity). Bare MNPs were biocompatible in vivo; mAb presence on MNPs induced a better dispersion within the tumor mass when injected in situ in MET/HGFR+ xenotumors in γ-null mice.

Title: Interaction of biadhesive molecules based-nanotools with the “sweet” side of cancer cells: implication in cancer- and immune-therapy
Authors Name: Bloise Nora,1,2,* Sehrish Farooq,1 Galliano Monica1 and Visai Livia1,2
Affiliations:
1
Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Health Technologies (CHT), INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Italy
2 Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Environmental Risks, ICS Maugeri, IRCCS, Pavia, Italy
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: Malignant transformation is accompanied by profound alterations in glycosylation. After a short excursus on the role of glycosylation and its main characteristics, the review aimed to summarize the recent progress relating to nanomedicine strategies to targeting aberrant glycosylation by involving the functionalization of nanoparticles with biological molecules owing bioadhesive properties. We will focus on the current adhesive molecules based-nanotools (e.g. natural lectins and antibodies), describing also the possible mechanism of action and its challenges and perspective in cancer immunotherapies.

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