Special Issue "Nanostructured Biosensors"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dimitrios P. Nikolelis

Guest Editor
Laboratory of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues:

Nanotechnology has provided tools, methods, and materials that can be readily exploited for biosensor construction. Lab-on-chips, for example, may have become a reality for commercial systems; hand-held devices could be massively produced for field measurements; noninvasive monitoring for disease management might be successful in the near future. We invite authors to contribute original research articles or comprehensive review articles covering the current state-of-the-art and the future trends in the design of nanostructured biosensors for applications in environmental monitoring, food quality, clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, and disease monitoring. This special issue aims to cover a broad range of subjects, from device design and assembly to analytical development, implementation and commercialization prospects. The format of welcomed articles includes full papers, communications, and reviews.

Prof. Dr. Dimitros P. Nikolelis
Dr. Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • system integration
  • real-time monitoring
  • sensor assembly
  • multiplex analysis
  • lab-on-chips
  • non-invasive detection

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Structural Influence on the Post-Clustering Stability of DNA/AgNCs Fluorescence
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050667 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
DNA-encapsulated Silver Nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) based sensors have gained increasing attention in past years due to their diverse applications in bioimaging, biosensing, and enzymatic assays. Given the potential of DNA/AgNCs for practical applications, the systematic studies of the fluorescent stability over an extended period [...] Read more.
DNA-encapsulated Silver Nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) based sensors have gained increasing attention in past years due to their diverse applications in bioimaging, biosensing, and enzymatic assays. Given the potential of DNA/AgNCs for practical applications, the systematic studies of the fluorescent stability over an extended period is necessary. However, the correlation between nucleic acid properties and the long-term stability of DNA/AgNCs is less known. With locking-to-unlocking sensors, in which the secondary structure of DNA template is standardized, we investigated the correlation between the DNA structure and the fluorescence stability of AgNCs. Post-synthesis of DNA/AgNCs, the fluorescence, and structures of templates were monitored over three weeks. By combining the fluorescence spectroscopy with the in-gel fluorescent assay, we found that AgNCs encapsulated by dimer-structured DNA/AgNCs templates were more stable than those of hairpin-structured DNA/AgNCs templates. While the orange fluorescence from the dimer templates increased over three weeks, the red fluorescence from the hairpin templates was diminished by >80% within two days at room temperature. Further tests revealed that hairpin-encapsulated red-emissive AgNCs is more sensitive to oxidation by atmospheric oxygen compared to dimer encapsulated orange AgNCs. Our observations may provide an important clue in encapsulating photophysically more stable AgNCs by tuning the DNA secondary structures. The proposed strategy here can be essential for pragmatic applications of DNA/AgNCs templates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors)
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Open AccessCommunication
Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticles Derived from Silkworm Excrement as On–Off–On Fluorescent Sensors to Detect Fe(III) and Biothiols
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060443 - 17 Jun 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
On–off–on fluorescent sensors based on emerging carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) or carbon dots (CDs) have attracted extensive attention for their convenience and efficiency. In this study, dumped silkworm excrement was used as a novel precursor to prepare fluorescent nitrogen-doped CNPs (N-CNPs) through hydrothermal treatment. [...] Read more.
On–off–on fluorescent sensors based on emerging carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) or carbon dots (CDs) have attracted extensive attention for their convenience and efficiency. In this study, dumped silkworm excrement was used as a novel precursor to prepare fluorescent nitrogen-doped CNPs (N-CNPs) through hydrothermal treatment. The obtained N-CNPs showed good photoluminescent properties and excellent water dispersibility. Thus, they were applied as fluorescence “on–off–on” probes for the detection of Fe(III) and biothiols. The “on–off” process was achieved by adding Fe(III) into N-CNP solution, which resulted in the selective fluorescence quenching, with the detection limit of 0.20 μM in the linear range of 1–500 μM. Following this, the introduction of biothiols could recover the fluorescence efficiently, in order to realize the “off–on” process. By using glutathione (GSH) as the representative, the linear range was in the range of 1–1000 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.13 μM. Moreover, this useful strategy was successfully applied for the determination of amounts of GSH in fetal calf serum samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Applications of Nanomaterials Based on Magnetite and Mesoporous Silica on the Selective Detection of Zinc Ion in Live Cell Imaging
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060434 - 14 Jun 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (FMNPs) and functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FMSNs) were synthesized by the conjugation of magnetite and mesoporous silica with the small and fluorogenic benzothiazole ligand, that is, 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (hpbtz). The synthesized fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, XRF, [...] Read more.
Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (FMNPs) and functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FMSNs) were synthesized by the conjugation of magnetite and mesoporous silica with the small and fluorogenic benzothiazole ligand, that is, 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (hpbtz). The synthesized fluorescent nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, XRF, 13C CP MAS NMR, BET, and TEM. The photophysical behavior of FMNPs and FMSNs in ethanol was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. The modification of magnetite and silica scaffolds with the highly fluorescent benzothiazole ligand enabled the nanoparticles to be used as selective and sensitive optical probes for zinc ion detection. Moreover, the presence of hpbtz in FMNPs and FMSNs induced efficient cell viability and zinc ion uptake, with desirable signaling in the normal human kidney epithelial (Hek293) cell line. The significant viability of FMNPs and FMSNs (80% and 92%, respectively) indicates a potential applicability of these nanoparticles as in vitro imaging agents. The calculated limit of detections (LODs) were found to be 2.53 × 10−6 and 2.55 × 10−6 M for Fe3O4[email protected] and MSN-Et3N-IPTMS-hpbtz-f1, respectively. FMSNs showed more pronounced zinc signaling relative to FMNPs, as a result of the more efficient penetration into the cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Diazotization-Coupling Reaction-Based Determination of Tyrosine in Urine Using Ag Nanocubes by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060400 - 03 Jun 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
A novel, simple, and highly sensitive method was developed to detect the concentration of tyrosine-derived azo dye indirectly using silver nanocubes (AgNCs) as a substrate on a super-hydrophobic silver film by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Diazotization-coupling reaction occurred between diazonium ions and the [...] Read more.
A novel, simple, and highly sensitive method was developed to detect the concentration of tyrosine-derived azo dye indirectly using silver nanocubes (AgNCs) as a substrate on a super-hydrophobic silver film by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Diazotization-coupling reaction occurred between diazonium ions and the phenolic tyrosine, resulting in three new typical peaks in the SERS spectrum of the azo dye that was formed on the AgNCs, indicating strong SERS activity. Subsequently, the limit of detection of this approach was as low as 10−12 M for tyrosine. Moreover, the SERS intensities of the three typical SERS signals of the analyte were linearly correlated with the logarithm of concentration of the Tyrosine. The proposed method shows great potential for tyrosine detection in the urine samples of normal humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Carbon Dots and Graphene Quantum Dots in Electrochemical Biosensing
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040634 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 21
Abstract
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon dots (CDs) are among the latest research frontiers in carbon-based nanomaterials. They provide interesting attributes to current electrochemical biosensing due to their intrinsic low toxicity, high solubility in many solvents, excellent electronic properties, robust chemical inertness, large [...] Read more.
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon dots (CDs) are among the latest research frontiers in carbon-based nanomaterials. They provide interesting attributes to current electrochemical biosensing due to their intrinsic low toxicity, high solubility in many solvents, excellent electronic properties, robust chemical inertness, large specific surface area, abundant edge sites for functionalization, great biocompatibility, low cost, and versatility, as well as their ability for modification with attractive surface chemistries and other modifiers/nanomaterials. In this review article, the use of GQDs and CDs as signal tags or electrode surface modifiers to develop electrochemical biosensing strategies is critically discussed through the consideration of representative approaches reported in the last five years. The advantages and disadvantages arising from the use of GQDs and CDs in this context are outlined together with the still required work to fulfil the characteristics needed to achieve suitable electrochemical enzymatic and affinity biosensors with applications in the real world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors)
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