Special Issue "Metallic Nanostructures"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Salomon Adi
Website
Guest Editor
Bar Ilan Institute for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Ramat Gan, Israel
Interests: imaging; metallic nano-structures; photo-catalysis; energy transfer processes; Second Harmonic generations; color generators; surface plasmons; renewable energy materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With recent advances in nanotechnology, fabrication and characterization of metallic nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention.  By structuring metallic surfaces at the sub-micron scale, light is coupled to surface plasmons and can be confined to a deep sub-wavelength volume. As a result, both linear and nonlinear optical responses are highly enhanced, enabling high-resolution detection. The ability to design state-of-the-art metallic nanostructures gives rise to fundamental optical phenomena at the nano-scale and to development of a wide range of optical devices for (bio)-imaging and sensing.

This Special Issue on "Metallic Nanostructures" attempts to cover recent advances in the fabrication of metallic nanostructures and characterization techniques, especially techniques related to electronic microscopies. Their applications in color generations, imaging, and sensing will be covered as well.

Dr. Salomon Adi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fabrication techniques
  • nano-imaging
  • optical sensing
  • metallic nano- structures
  • cathodoluminescence
  • EELS
  • SHG
  • color generators

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Multipole Radiations from Large Gold Nanospheres Excited by Evanescent Wave
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020175 - 31 Jan 2019
Abstract
We proposed the use of the evanescent wave generated in a total internal reflection configuration to excite large gold nanospheres and investigated the radiations of the high-order plasmon modes supported in gold nanospheres. It was revealed that the evanescent wave excitation is equivalent [...] Read more.
We proposed the use of the evanescent wave generated in a total internal reflection configuration to excite large gold nanospheres and investigated the radiations of the high-order plasmon modes supported in gold nanospheres. It was revealed that the evanescent wave excitation is equivalent to the excitation by using both the incident and reflected light, offering us the opportunity to control the orientation of the electric field used to excite nanoparticles. In addition, it was found that the scattering light intensity is greatly enhanced and the background noise is considerably suppressed, making it possible to detect the radiations from high-order plasmon modes. Moreover, the influence of the mirror images on the scattering induced by a metal substrate is eliminated as compared with the surface plasmon polariton excitation. By exciting a gold nanosphere with s-polarized light and detecting the scattering light with a p-polarized analyzer, we were able to reveal the radiation from the electric quadrupole mode of the gold nanosphere in both the spatial and the frequency domains. Our findings are important for characterizing the radiations from the high-order modes of large nanoparticles and useful for designing nanoscale photonic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Excimer Laser Induced Spatially Resolved Formation and Implantation of Plasmonic Particles in Glass
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121035 - 12 Dec 2018
Abstract
Metallic nanoparticles are important building blocks for plasmonic applications. The spatially defined arrangement of these nanoparticles in a stable glass matrix is obtained here by nanosecond excimer laser irradiation at 193 nm. Two approaches are addressed: (1) Laser induced formation of particles from [...] Read more.
Metallic nanoparticles are important building blocks for plasmonic applications. The spatially defined arrangement of these nanoparticles in a stable glass matrix is obtained here by nanosecond excimer laser irradiation at 193 nm. Two approaches are addressed: (1) Laser induced formation of particles from a dopant material pre-incorporated in the glass, (2) Particle formation and implantation by irradiation of material pre-coated on top of the glass. Silver nanoparticles are formed inside Ag+ doped glass (method 1). Gold nanoparticles are implanted by irradiation of gold coated glass (method 2). In the latter case, with a few laser pulses the original gold film disintegrates into particles which are then embedded in the softened glass matrix. A micron sized spatial resolution (periodic arrangements with 2 µm period) is obtained in both cases by irradiating the samples with an interference beam pattern generated by a phase mask. The plasmonic absorption of the nanoparticles leads to a contrast of the optical density between irradiated and non-irradiated lines of up to 0.6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatially-Controllable Hot Spots for Plasmon-Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation in AgNP-ZnO Nanocavity Arrays
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121012 - 05 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG) based on hybrid metal-dielectric nanostructures have extraordinary importance for developing efficient nanoscale nonlinear sources, which pave the way for new applications in photonic circuitry, quantum optics, and biosensors. However, the relatively high loss of excitation energies and the low [...] Read more.
Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG) based on hybrid metal-dielectric nanostructures have extraordinary importance for developing efficient nanoscale nonlinear sources, which pave the way for new applications in photonic circuitry, quantum optics, and biosensors. However, the relatively high loss of excitation energies and the low spatial overlapping between the locally enhanced electromagnetic field and nonlinear materials still limit the promotion of nonlinear conversion performances in such hybrid systems. Here, we design and fabricate an array of silver nanoparticle-ZnO (AgNP-ZnO) nanocavities to serve as an efficient PESHG platform. The geometry of AgNP-ZnO nanocavity arrays provides a way to flexibly modulate hot spots in three-dimensional space, and to achieve a good mutual overlap of hot spots and ZnO material layers for realizing efficient SH photon generation originating from ZnO nanocavities. Compared to bare ZnO nanocavity arrays, the resulting hybrid AgNP-ZnO design of nanocavities reaches the maximum PESHG enhancement by a factor of approximately 31. Validated by simulations, we can further interpret the relative contribution of fundamental and harmonic modes to Ag-NP dependent PESHG performances, and reveal that the enhancement stems from the co-cooperation effect of plasmon-resonant enhancements both for fundamental and harmonic frequencies. Our findings offer a previously unreported method for designing efficient PESHG systems and pave a way for further understanding of a surface plasmon-coupled second-order emission mechanism for the enhancement of hybrid systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Strength and Brittleness of Interfaces in Fe-Al Superalloy Nanocomposites under Multiaxial Loading: An ab initio and Atomistic Study
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110873 - 24 Oct 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
We present an ab initio and atomistic study of the stress-strain response and elastic stability of the ordered Fe3Al compound with the D03 structure and a disordered Fe-Al solid solution with 18.75 at.% Al as well as of a nanocomposite [...] Read more.
We present an ab initio and atomistic study of the stress-strain response and elastic stability of the ordered Fe 3 Al compound with the D0 3 structure and a disordered Fe-Al solid solution with 18.75 at.% Al as well as of a nanocomposite consisting of an equal molar amount of both phases under uniaxial loading along the [001] direction. The tensile tests were performed under complex conditions including the effect of the lateral stress on the tensile strength and temperature effect. By comparing the behavior of individual phases with that of the nanocomposite we find that the disordered Fe-Al phase represents the weakest point of the studied nanocomposite in terms of tensile loading. The cleavage plane of the whole nanocomposite is identical to that identified when loading is applied solely to the disordered Fe-Al phase. It also turns out that the mechanical stability is strongly affected by softening of elastic constants C and/or C 66 and by corresponding elastic instabilities. Interestingly, we found that uniaxial straining of the ordered Fe 3 Al with the D0 3 structure leads almost to hydrostatic loading. Furthermore, increasing lateral stress linearly increases the tensile strength. This was also confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations employing Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential. The molecular dynamics simulations also revealed that the thermal vibrations significantly decrease the tensile strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Atomistic Investigation of Anisotropic Nanoindentation Behavior of Nanotwinned Aluminum Containing Inclined Twin Boundaries
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090695 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nanotwinned metals exhibit superior mechanical properties due to unique dislocation–twin boundary interactions. In the present work, we elucidate the microscopic deformation mechanisms and their correlations with the macroscopic mechanical response of nanotwinned Al containing inclined twin boundaries under nanoindentation by means of molecular [...] Read more.
Nanotwinned metals exhibit superior mechanical properties due to unique dislocation–twin boundary interactions. In the present work, we elucidate the microscopic deformation mechanisms and their correlations with the macroscopic mechanical response of nanotwinned Al containing inclined twin boundaries under nanoindentation by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of twin boundary orientation with respect to the indented surface on the nanoindentation is evaluated. Simulation results reveal that dislocation slip, dislocation–twin boundary interaction, and twin boundary migration operate in parallel in the plastic deformation of nanotwinned Al. The inclination angle of twin boundaries with respect to indented surface has a strong influence on the interaction between individual deformation modes, which in turn leads to the anisotropic indentation behavior of nanotwinned Al. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Open AccessCommunication
Distinguishable Plasmonic Nanoparticle and Gap Mode Properties in a Silver Nanoparticle on a Gold Film System Using Three-Dimensional FDTD Simulations
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080582 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
We present a computational study of the near-field enhancement properties from a plasmonic nanomaterial based on a silver nanoparticle on a gold film. Our simulation studies show a clear distinguishability between nanoparticle mode and gap mode as a function of dielectric layer thickness. [...] Read more.
We present a computational study of the near-field enhancement properties from a plasmonic nanomaterial based on a silver nanoparticle on a gold film. Our simulation studies show a clear distinguishability between nanoparticle mode and gap mode as a function of dielectric layer thickness. The observed nanoparticle mode is independent of dielectric layer thickness, and hence its related plasmonic properties can be investigated clearly by having a minimum of ~10-nm-thick dielectric layer on a metallic film. In case of the gap mode, the presence of minimal dielectric layer thickness is crucial (~≤4 nm), as deterioration starts rapidly thereafter. The proposed simple tunable gap-based particle on film design might open interesting studies in the field of plasmonics, extreme light confinement, sensing, and source enhancement of an emitter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanostrip-Induced High Tunability Multipolar Fano Resonances in a Au Ring-Strip Nanosystem
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080568 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 24
Abstract
Surface plasmon resonances of a Au ring-strip nanosystem with tunable multipolar Fano resonances have been investigated based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Abundant plasmon properties of a Au ring-strip nanosystem can be obtained on the basis of the unique electronic properties of [...] Read more.
Surface plasmon resonances of a Au ring-strip nanosystem with tunable multipolar Fano resonances have been investigated based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Abundant plasmon properties of a Au ring-strip nanosystem can be obtained on the basis of the unique electronic properties of different geometry parameters. In our research models, these multipolar Fano resonances are induced and can be tuned independently by changing the geometry parameters of the Au ring-strip nanosystem. Complex electric field distributions excited by the Au ring-strip nanosystem provide possibility to form dark plasmonic modes. Multipolar Fano resonances display strong light extinction in the Au ring-strip nanosystem, which can offer a new approach for an optical tunable filter, optical switching, and advanced biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
A Thin Film Flexible Supercapacitor Based on Oblique Angle Deposited Ni/NiO Nanowire Arrays
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060422 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
With high power density, fast charging-discharging speed, and a long cycling life, supercapacitors are a kind of highly developed novel energy-storage device that has shown a growing performance and various unconventional shapes such as flexible, linear-type, stretchable, self-healing, etc. Here, we proposed a [...] Read more.
With high power density, fast charging-discharging speed, and a long cycling life, supercapacitors are a kind of highly developed novel energy-storage device that has shown a growing performance and various unconventional shapes such as flexible, linear-type, stretchable, self-healing, etc. Here, we proposed a rational design of thin film, flexible micro-supercapacitors with in-plane interdigital electrodes, where the electrodes were fabricated using the oblique angle deposition technique to grow oblique Ni/NiO nanowire arrays directly on polyimide film. The obtained electrodes have a high specific surface area and good adhesion to the substrate compared with other in-plane micro-supercapacitors. Meanwhile, the as-fabricated micro-supercapacitors have good flexibility and satisfactory energy-storage performance, exhibiting a high specific capacity of 37.1 F/cm3, a high energy density of 5.14 mWh/cm3, a power density of up to 0.5 W/cm3, and good stability during charge-discharge cycles and repeated bending-recovery cycles, respectively. Our micro-supercapacitors can be used as ingenious energy storage devices for future portable and wearable electronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Boosting the Efficiency of Photoelectrolysis by the Addition of Non-Noble Plasmonic Metals: Al & Cu
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010001 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Solar water splitting by semiconductor based photoanodes and photocathodes is one of the most promising strategies to convert solar energy to chemical energy to meet the high demand for energy consumption in modern society. However, the state-of-the-art efficiency is too low to fulfill [...] Read more.
Solar water splitting by semiconductor based photoanodes and photocathodes is one of the most promising strategies to convert solar energy to chemical energy to meet the high demand for energy consumption in modern society. However, the state-of-the-art efficiency is too low to fulfill the demand. To overcome this challenge and thus enable the industrial realization of a solar water splitting device, different approaches have been taken to enhance the overall device efficiency, one of which is the incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures. Photoanodes and photocathodes coupled to the optimized plasmonic nanostructures, matching the absorption wavelength of the semiconductors, can exhibit a significantly increased efficiency. So far, gold and silver have been extensively explored to plasmonically enhance water splitting efficiency, with disadvantages of high cost and low enhancement. Instead, non-noble plasmonic metals such as aluminum and copper, are earth-abundant and low cost. In this article, we review their potentials in photoelectrolysis, towards scalable applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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Open AccessReview
Polarization- and Angular-Resolved Optical Response of Molecules on Anisotropic Plasmonic Nanostructures
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060418 - 09 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A sometimes overlooked degree of freedom in the design of many spectroscopic (mainly Raman) experiments involve the choice of experimental geometry and polarization arrangement used. Although these aspects usually play a rather minor role, their neglect may result in a misinterpretation of the [...] Read more.
A sometimes overlooked degree of freedom in the design of many spectroscopic (mainly Raman) experiments involve the choice of experimental geometry and polarization arrangement used. Although these aspects usually play a rather minor role, their neglect may result in a misinterpretation of the experimental results. It is well known that polarization- and/or angular- resolved spectroscopic experiments allow one to classify the symmetry of the vibrations involved or the molecular orientation with respect to a smooth surface. However, very low detection limits in surface-enhancing spectroscopic techniques are often accompanied by a complete or partial loss of this detailed information. In this review, we will try to elucidate the extent to which this approach can be generalized for molecules adsorbed on plasmonic nanostructures. We will provide a detailed summary of the state-of-the-art experimental findings for a range of plasmonic platforms used in the last ~ 15 years. Possible implications on the design of plasmon-based molecular sensors for maximum signal enhancement will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Nanostructures)
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