Nanosensors

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 46290

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and CSGI, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Interests: multifunctional nanomaterials: synthesis and characterisation; nanosensors; biomimetic nanosytems; SERS; biosensor
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The last few decades have witnessed an impressive advancement in the realization of sensors based on nanotechnology achievements. Driven by the plethora of new nanostructures proposed by academic and industrial research teams working on apparently distant fields in nanoscience, new devices have been designed and realized as chemical, biological, diagnostic, or environmental nanosensors. Among a growing repertoire, nanoparticles and nanoparticle arrays based on metal, metal oxide, magnetic, and semiconductor materials have been attracting increasing attention in sensing applications thanks to their versatile coupling with a wide range of signal transduction approaches.

This Special Issue offers a timely and authoritative opportunity to present recent progress in the field of nanoparticle-based sensors categorized by their signal transduction mechanisms, namely fluorescence, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical, piezoelectric, and magnetic methods.

In particular, we invite the submission of papers addressing issues related to recent achievements in sensing, spanning, but not limited to, gas and humidity sensors, inorganic and organic pollutants, the early detection of disease-related biomarkers, and immunosensing. Contributions dedicated to the implementation of nanosensors on flexible materials intended for wearable sensor devices will also be welcome.

Further, the Special Issue is expected to highlight exciting challenges and future applications of the rising stars in nanoparticle sensing technology—carbon and graphene quantum dots (CQD and GQD).

We invite the submission of contributions on nanoparticle-based sensors reporting not only on their functional properties but also the synthesis and characterization aspects of the nanoparticles or nanoparticle arrays.

Prof. Dr. Gabriella Caminati
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticle arrays
  • Nanosensors
  • Plasmonic nanoparticles
  • Carbon dots
  • Graphene quantum dots
  • Wearable sensors
  • Diagnostic nanosensors
  • Environmental
  • nanosensors

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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24 pages, 3576 KiB  
Article
Graphene Oxide/Silver Nanoparticles Platforms for the Detection and Discrimination of Native and Fibrillar Lysozyme: A Combined QCM and SERS Approach
by Vania Tramonti, Cristiana Lofrumento, Maria Raffaella Martina, Giacomo Lucchesi and Gabriella Caminati
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040600 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
We propose a sensing platform based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles arrays (GO/AgNPs) for the detection and discrimination of the native and toxic fibrillar forms of an amyloid-prone protein, lysozyme, by means of a combination of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Surface Enhanced Raman [...] Read more.
We propose a sensing platform based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles arrays (GO/AgNPs) for the detection and discrimination of the native and toxic fibrillar forms of an amyloid-prone protein, lysozyme, by means of a combination of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. The GO/AgNPs layer system was obtained by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of the silver nanoparticles followed by controlled adsorption of GO sheets on the AgNPs array. The adsorption of native and fibrillar lysozyme was followed by means of QCM, the measurements provided the kinetics and the mechanism of adsorption as a function of protein concentration as well as the mass and thickness of the adsorbed protein on both nanoplatforms. The morphology of the protein layer was characterized by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy experiments on Thioflavine T-stained samples. SERS experiments performed on arrays of bare AgNPs and of GO coated AgNP after native, or fibrillar, lysozyme adsorption allowed for the discrimination of the native form and toxic fibrillar structure of lysozyme. Results from combined QCM/SERS studies indicate a general construction paradigm for an efficient sensing platform with high selectivity and low detection limit for native and amyloid lysozyme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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15 pages, 2188 KiB  
Article
Artificial Neural Network Modelling for Optimizing the Optical Parameters of Plasmonic Paired Nanostructures
by Sneha Verma, Sunny Chugh, Souvik Ghosh and B. M. Azizur Rahman
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010170 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has become an attractive approach in Machine Learning (ML) to analyze a complex data-driven problem. Due to its time efficient findings, it has became popular in many scientific fields such as physics, optics, and material science. This paper [...] Read more.
The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has become an attractive approach in Machine Learning (ML) to analyze a complex data-driven problem. Due to its time efficient findings, it has became popular in many scientific fields such as physics, optics, and material science. This paper presents a new approach to design and optimize the electromagnetic plasmonic nanostructures using a computationally efficient method based on the ANN. In this work, the nanostructures have been simulated by using a Finite Element Method (FEM), then Artificial Intelligence (AI) is used for making predictions of associated sensitivity (S), Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM), Figure of Merit (FOM), and Plasmonic Wavelength (PW) for different paired nanostructures. At first, the computational model is developed by using a Finite Element Method (FEM) to prepare the dataset. The input parameters were considered as the Major axis, a, the Minor axis, b, and the separation gap, g, which have been used to calculate the corresponding sensitivity (nm/RIU), FWHM (nm), FOM, and plasmonic wavelength (nm) to prepare the dataset. Secondly, the neural network has been designed where the number of hidden layers and neurons were optimized as part of a comprehensive analysis to improve the efficiency of ML model. After successfully optimizing the neural network, this model is used to make predictions for specific inputs and its corresponding outputs. This article also compares the error between the predicted and simulated results. This approach outperforms the direct numerical simulation methods for predicting output for various input device parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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15 pages, 8023 KiB  
Article
Self-Powered Acceleration Sensor Based on Multilayer Suspension Structure and TPU-RTV Film for Vibration Monitoring
by Xiaotao Han, Qiyuan Zhang, Junbin Yu, Jinsha Song, Zhengyang Li, Haoran Cui, Jian He, Xiujian Chou and Jiliang Mu
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102763 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
In this paper, we designed a triboelectric acceleration sensor with excellent multiple parameters. To more easily detect weak vibrations, the sensor was founded on a multilayer suspension structure. To effectively improve the electrical properties of the sensor, a surface roughening and internal doping [...] Read more.
In this paper, we designed a triboelectric acceleration sensor with excellent multiple parameters. To more easily detect weak vibrations, the sensor was founded on a multilayer suspension structure. To effectively improve the electrical properties of the sensor, a surface roughening and internal doping friction film, which was refined with a room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV) and some thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) powder in a certain proportion, was integrated into the structure. It was found that the optimization of the RTV film increases the open circuit voltage and short circuit current of the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) by 223% and 227%, respectively. When the external vibration acceleration is less than 4 m/s2, the sensitivity and linearity are 1.996 V/(m/s2) and 0.999, respectively. Additionally, when it is in the range between 4 m/s2 and 15 m/s2, those are 23.082 V/(m/s2) and 0.975, respectively. Furthermore, the sensor was placed in a simulated truck vibration environment, and its self-powered monitoring ability validated by experiments in real time. The results show that the designed sensor has strong practical value in the field of monitoring mechanical vibration acceleration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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13 pages, 3765 KiB  
Article
Flexible SAW Microfluidic Devices as Wearable pH Sensors Based on ZnO Nanoparticles
by Luigi Piro, Leonardo Lamanna, Francesco Guido, Antonio Balena, Massimo Mariello, Francesco Rizzi and Massimo De Vittorio
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061479 - 3 Jun 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3661
Abstract
In this work, a new flexible and biocompatible microfluidic pH sensor based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs) is presented. The device consists of polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) as a flexible substrate on which aluminum nitride (AlN) has been deposited as a piezoelectric material. The [...] Read more.
In this work, a new flexible and biocompatible microfluidic pH sensor based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs) is presented. The device consists of polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) as a flexible substrate on which aluminum nitride (AlN) has been deposited as a piezoelectric material. The fabrication of suitable interdigitated transducers (IDTs) generates Lamb waves (L-SAW) with a center frequency ≈500 MHz traveling in the active region. A SU-8 microfluidics employing ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) functionalization as a pH-sensitive layer is fabricated between the IDTs, causing a shift in the L-SAW resonance frequency as a function of the change in pH values. The obtained sensitivity of ≈30 kHz/pH from pH 7 to pH 2 demonstrates the high potential of flexible SAW devices to be used in the measurement of pH in fluids and biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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11 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Construction of a Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Zn-Co-S/Graphene Nanocomposites for Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Detection
by Chia-Wei Su, Jia-Hao Tian, Jin-Jia Ye, Han-Wei Chang and Yu-Chen Tsai
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061475 - 2 Jun 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
Nanocomposites of the binary transition metal sulfide Zn-Co-S/graphene (Zn-Co-S@G) were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. They may be useful in the construction of an electrochemical immunosensor for carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) detection. Zn-Co-S dot-like nanoparticles uniformly covered the surface of graphene to [...] Read more.
Nanocomposites of the binary transition metal sulfide Zn-Co-S/graphene (Zn-Co-S@G) were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. They may be useful in the construction of an electrochemical immunosensor for carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) detection. Zn-Co-S dot-like nanoparticles uniformly covered the surface of graphene to form an interconnected conductive network, ensuring strong interaction between transition metal sulfide and graphene, which can expose numerous electroactive sites leading to the improvement of the amplified electrochemical signal toward a direct reduction of H2O2. Thus, the construction of an electrochemical immunosensor using Zn-Co-S@G nanocomposites showed outstanding sensing properties for detecting CA19-9. The constructed electrochemical immunosensor exhibited a good linear relationship in the range of 6.3 U·mL−1–300 U·mL−1, with the limit of detection at 0.82 U·mL−1, which makes it a promising candidate for an electrochemical immunosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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10 pages, 3919 KiB  
Communication
Room Temperature Operation of UV Photocatalytic Functionalized AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Hydrogen Sensor
by June-Heang Choi, Taehyun Park, Jaehyun Hur and Ho-Young Cha
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061422 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3519
Abstract
An AlGaN/GaN heterostructure based hydrogen sensor was fabricated using a dual catalyst layer with ZnO-nanoparticles (NPs) atop of Pd catalyst film. The ZnO-NPs were synthesized to have an average diameter of ~10 nm and spin coated on the Pd catalyst layer. Unlike the [...] Read more.
An AlGaN/GaN heterostructure based hydrogen sensor was fabricated using a dual catalyst layer with ZnO-nanoparticles (NPs) atop of Pd catalyst film. The ZnO-NPs were synthesized to have an average diameter of ~10 nm and spin coated on the Pd catalyst layer. Unlike the conventional catalytic reaction, the fabricated sensors exhibited room temperature operation without heating owing to the photocatalytic reaction of the ZnO-NPs with ultraviolet illumination at 280 nm. A sensing response of 25% was achieved for a hydrogen concentration of 4% at room temperature with fast response and recovery times; a response time of 8 s and a recovery time of 11 s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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19 pages, 9473 KiB  
Article
Graphene Nanoparticle-Based, Nitrate Ion Sensor Characteristics
by Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi, Morteza Bodaghzadeh, Seyed Saeid Rahimian Koloor and Michal Petrů
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010150 - 9 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
Gathering and sensing of nitrate ions in the environment due to the abundant use in industry and agriculture have become an important problem, which needs to be overcome. On the other hand, new materials such as carbon-based materials with unique properties have become [...] Read more.
Gathering and sensing of nitrate ions in the environment due to the abundant use in industry and agriculture have become an important problem, which needs to be overcome. On the other hand, new materials such as carbon-based materials with unique properties have become an ideal choice in sensing technology. In this research, the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer as a carbon source in the melted form was used and carbon nanoparticles in the form of a strand between two electrodes were analyzed. It was fabricated between copper electrodes by the pulsed arc discharge method. Subsequently, the constructed metal–nanoparticle–metal (MNM) contact was employed to recognize the nitrate ions. Therefore, NaNO3, Pb(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2, and NH4NO3 samples as a usual pollutant of industrial and agricultural wastewater were examined. All nitrate compounds in ten different densities were tested and sensor I-V characteristic was investigated, which showed that all the aforesaid compounds were recognizable by the graphene nano-strand. Additionally, the proposed structure in the presence of ions was simulated and acceptable agreement between them was reported. Additionally, the proposed structure analytically was investigated, and a comparison study between the proposed model and measured results was carried out and realistic agreement reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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17 pages, 8267 KiB  
Article
Detection of Hydroxyl Radicals Using Cerium Oxide/Graphene Oxide Composite on Prussian Blue
by Surachet Duanghathaipornsuk, Sushil Kanel, Emily F. Haushalter, Jessica E. Ruetz and Dong-Shik Kim
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061136 - 9 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3978
Abstract
A composite sensor consisting of two separate inorganic layers of Prussian blue (PB) and a composite of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) and graphene oxide (GO), is tested with •OH radicals. The signals from the interaction between the composite layers and •OH radicals are [...] Read more.
A composite sensor consisting of two separate inorganic layers of Prussian blue (PB) and a composite of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) and graphene oxide (GO), is tested with •OH radicals. The signals from the interaction between the composite layers and •OH radicals are characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The degradation of PB in the presence of H2O2 and •OH radicals is observed and its impact on the sensor efficiency is investigated. The results show that the composite sensor differentiates between the solutions with and without •OH radicals by the increase of electrochemical redox current in the presence of •OH radicals. The redox response shows a linear relation with the concentration of •OH radicals where the limit of detection, LOD, is found at 60 µM (100 µM without the PB layer). When additional composite layers are applied on the composite sensor to prevent the degradation of PB layer, the PB layer is still observed to be degraded. Furthermore, the sensor conductivity is found to decrease with the additional layers of composite. Although the CeNP/GO/PB composite sensor demonstrates high sensitivity with •OH radicals at low concentrations, it can only be used once due to the degradation of PB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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17 pages, 3921 KiB  
Article
Bifunctional Tm3+,Yb3+:GdVO4@SiO2 Core-Shell Nanoparticles in HeLa Cells: Upconversion Luminescence Nanothermometry in the First Biological Window and Biolabelling in the Visible
by Oleksandr Savchuk, Joan Josep Carvajal Marti, Concepción Cascales, Patricia Haro-Gonzalez, Francisco Sanz-Rodríguez, Magdalena Aguilo and Francesc Diaz
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050993 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4111
Abstract
The bifunctional possibilities of Tm,Yb:GdVO4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles for temperature sensing by using the near-infrared (NIR)-excited upconversion emissions in the first biological window, and biolabeling through the visible emissions they generate, were investigated. The two emission lines located at 700 and [...] Read more.
The bifunctional possibilities of Tm,Yb:GdVO4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles for temperature sensing by using the near-infrared (NIR)-excited upconversion emissions in the first biological window, and biolabeling through the visible emissions they generate, were investigated. The two emission lines located at 700 and 800 nm, that arise from the thermally coupled 3F2,3 and 3H4 energy levels of Tm3+, were used to develop a luminescent thermometer, operating through the Fluorescence Intensity Ratio (FIR) technique, with a very high thermal relative sensitivity. Moreover, since the inert shell surrounding the luminescent active core allows for dispersal of the nanoparticles in water and biological compatible fluids, we investigated the penetration depth that can be realized in biological tissues with their emissions in the NIR range, achieving a value of 0.8 mm when excited at powers of 50 mW. After their internalization in HeLa cells, a low toxicity was observed and the potentiality for biolabelling in the visible range was demonstrated, which facilitated the identification of the location of the nanoparticles inside the cells, and the temperature determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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12 pages, 3114 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal Synthesis and Gas Sensing of Monoclinic MoO3 Nanosheets
by Teodóra Nagyné-Kovács, Levente Studnicka, István Endre Lukács, Krisztina László, Pawel Pasierb, Imre Miklós Szilágyi and György Pokol
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050891 - 7 May 2020
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 5232
Abstract
Effects of different reaction parameters in the hydrothermal synthesis of molybdenum oxides (MoO3) were investigated and monoclinic (β-) MoO3 was prepared hydrothermally for the first time. Various temperatures (90/210 °C, and as a novelty 240 °C) and durations (3/6 h) [...] Read more.
Effects of different reaction parameters in the hydrothermal synthesis of molybdenum oxides (MoO3) were investigated and monoclinic (β-) MoO3 was prepared hydrothermally for the first time. Various temperatures (90/210 °C, and as a novelty 240 °C) and durations (3/6 h) were used. At 240 °C, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and CrCl3 additives were also tested. Both the reaction temperatures and durations played a significant role in the formation of the products. At 90 °C, h-MoO3 was obtained, while at 240 °C the orthorhombic (α-) MoO3 formed with hexagonal rod-like and nanofibrous morphology, respectively. The phase transformation between these two phases was observed at 210 °C. At this temperature, the 3 h reaction time resulted in the mixture of h- and α-MoO3, but 6 h led to pure α-MoO3. With CTAB the product was bare o-MoO3, however, when CrCl3 was applied, pure metastable m-MoO3 formed with the well-crystallized nanosheet morphology. The gas sensing of the MoO3 polymorphs was tested to H2, which was the first such gas sensing study in the case of m-WO3. Monoclinic MoO3 was found to be more sensitive in H2 sensing than o-MoO3. This initial gas sensing study indicates that m-MoO3 has promising gas sensing properties and this MoO3 polymorph is promising to be studied in detail in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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12 pages, 4515 KiB  
Article
Coulomb Blockade Effect in Well-Arranged 2D Arrays of Palladium Nano-Islands for Hydrogen Detection at Room Temperature: A Modeling Study
by Mahdi Khaje, Hassan Sedghi, Hadi Goudarzi, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi, Seyed Saeid Rahimian Koloor and Michal Petrů
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050835 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 3392
Abstract
The fast growth of hydrogen usage as a clean fuel in civil applications such as transportation, space technology, etc. highlights the importance of the reliable detection of its leakage and accumulation under explosion limit by sensors with a low power consumption at times [...] Read more.
The fast growth of hydrogen usage as a clean fuel in civil applications such as transportation, space technology, etc. highlights the importance of the reliable detection of its leakage and accumulation under explosion limit by sensors with a low power consumption at times when there is no accumulation of hydrogen in the environment. In this research, a new and efficient mechanism is presented for hydrogen detection—using the Coulomb blockade effect in a well-arranged 2D array of palladium nano-islands—which can operate at room temperature. We demonstrated that under certain conditions of size distribution and the regularity of palladium nano-islands, with selected sizes of 1.7, 3 and 6.1 nm, the blockade threshold will appear in current-voltage (IV) characteristics. In reality, it will be achieved by the inherent uncertainty in the size of the islands in nano-scale fabrication or by controlling the size of nanoparticles from 1.7 to 6.1 nm, considering a regular arrangement of nanoparticles that satisfies single-electron tunneling requirements. Based on the simulation results, the threshold voltage is shifted towards lower ones due to the expansion of Pd nanoparticles exposed to the environment with hydrogen concentrations lower than 2.6%. Also, exploring the features of the presented structure as a gas sensor, provides robustness against the Gaussian variation in nano-islands sizes and temperature variations. Remarkably, the existence of the threshold voltage in the IV curve and adjusting the bias voltage below this threshold leads to a drastic reduction in power consumption. There is also an improvement in the minimum detectable hydrogen concentration as well as the sensor response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 4568 KiB  
Review
Development of Nanosensors Based Intelligent Packaging Systems: Food Quality and Medicine
by Ramachandran Chelliah, Shuai Wei, Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Momna Rubab, Fazle Elahi, Su-Jung Yeon, Kyoung hee Jo, Pianpian Yan, Shucheng Liu and Deog Hwan Oh
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061515 - 8 Jun 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 7624
Abstract
The issue of medication noncompliance has resulted in major risks to public safety and financial loss. The new omnipresent medicine enabled by the Internet of things offers fascinating new possibilities. Additionally, an in-home healthcare station (IHHS), it is necessary to meet the rapidly [...] Read more.
The issue of medication noncompliance has resulted in major risks to public safety and financial loss. The new omnipresent medicine enabled by the Internet of things offers fascinating new possibilities. Additionally, an in-home healthcare station (IHHS), it is necessary to meet the rapidly increasing need for routine nursing and on-site diagnosis and prognosis. This article proposes a universal and preventive strategy to drug management based on intelligent and interactive packaging (I2Pack) and IMedBox. The controlled delamination material (CDM) seals and regulates wireless technologies in novel medicine packaging. As such, wearable biomedical sensors may capture a variety of crucial parameters via wireless communication. On-site treatment and prediction of these critical factors are made possible by high-performance architecture. The user interface is also highlighted to make surgery easier for the elderly, disabled, and patients. Land testing incorporates and validates an approach for prototyping I2Pack and iMedBox. Additionally, sustainability, increased product safety, and quality standards are crucial throughout the life sciences. To achieve these standards, intelligent packaging is also used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. These technologies will continuously monitor the quality of a product and communicate with the user. Data carriers, indications, and sensors are the three most important groups. They are not widely used at the moment, although their potential is well understood. Intelligent packaging should be used in these sectors and the functionality of the systems and the values presented in this analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosensors)
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