Special Issue "Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dong-Wook Han
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, Pusan National University (PNU), Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil 2, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Korea
Interests: carbon-based nanomaterials; nanotoxicity; nanobioelectronics; nanomedicine; biocompatibility evaluation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jin-Woo Oh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nanoenergy Engineering College of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, Pusan National University (PNU), Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil 2, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Korea
Interests: bio-nanomaterials; sensor; self-assembled nano/micro structure; biomaterial based devices; virus based energy generator

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A virus is considered as a nanoscale organic material that can infect and replicate only inside the living cells of other organisms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. The structure of viruses consists of two or three parts: (i) the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, that carry genetic information; (ii) a protein coat, called the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases; and (iii) an envelope of lipids that surrounds the protein coat. By inserting the gene encoding functional proteins into the viral genome, the functional proteins can be genetically displayed on the protein coat to form bioengineered viruses. Therefore, viruses can be depicted as biological nanoparticles with genetically tunable surface chemistry and serve as models for developing virus-like nanoparticles and even nanostructures.

Via such a process, ‘viral display’, bioengineered viruses can be mass-produced with lower cost and potentially applied to tissue regeneration, gene/peptide/drug delivery, theranostics, bio-sensing, and even energy harvesting and storage. In this Special Issue, any type of manuscripts that focus on those biomedical applications, as well as specific approaches and strategies to deal with “Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures” will be considered.

We are highly interested in the following topics, including but not limited to:

  • virus-decorated nanobiomaterials as scaffolds for tissue engineering
  • virus-incorporated hybrid composites for regenerative and translational medicine
  • virus-based delivery carriers for gene, siRNA, peptide, antibody, oligomer, drug, etc.
  • virus or virus-like nanoparticles for modulating stem cell fate
  • virus or virus-like nanoparticles for nanomedicine and theranostics
  • virus or virus-like nanoparticles for bioimaging and biosensing
  • virus-based nanostructures for energy harvesting and storage devices

Prof. Dr. Dong-Wook Han
Prof. Dr. Jin-Woo Oh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomedical applications of virus-based nanomaterials
  • virus-based nanostructures for energy devices

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Elongated Flexuous Plant Virus-Derived Nanoparticles Functionalized for Autoantibody Detection
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101438 - 10 Oct 2019
Abstract
Nanoparticles derived from the elongated flexuous capsids of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) have been shown to be efficient tools for antibody sensing with a very high sensitivity if adequately functionalized with the corresponding epitopes. Taking advantage of this possibility, TuMV virus-like particles (VLPs) [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles derived from the elongated flexuous capsids of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) have been shown to be efficient tools for antibody sensing with a very high sensitivity if adequately functionalized with the corresponding epitopes. Taking advantage of this possibility, TuMV virus-like particles (VLPs) have been genetically derivatized with a peptide from the chaperonin Hsp60, a protein described to be involved in inflammation processes and autoimmune diseases. Antibodies against the peptide have been previously shown to have a diagnostic value in at least one autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis. The functionalized Hsp60-VLPs showed their significant increase in sensing potency when compared to monoclonal antibody detection of the peptide in a conventional immunoassay. Additionally, the developed Hsp60-VLPs allowed the detection of autoantibodies against the Hsp60 peptide in an in vivo mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The detection of minute amounts of the autoantibodies allowed us to perform the analysis of their evolution during the progression of the disease. The anti-Hsp60 autoantibody levels in the sera of the inflamed mice went down during the induction phase of the disease. Increased levels of the anti-HSP60 autoantibodies were detected during the resolution phase of the disease. An extension of a previously proposed model for the involvement of Hsp60 in inflammatory processes is considered, incorporating a role for Hsp60 autoantibodies. This, and related models, can now be experimentally tested thanks to the autoantibody detection hypersensitivity provided by the functionalized VLPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
Open AccessArticle
Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines as a Platform for Improvement of HIV-1 Env Antibody Responses by Intrastructural Help
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101389 - 27 Sep 2019
Abstract
Incorporation of immunodominant T-helper epitopes of licensed vaccines into virus-like particles (VLP) allows to harness T-helper cells induced by the licensed vaccines to provide intrastructural help (ISH) for B-cell responses against the surface proteins of the VLPs. To explore whether ISH could also [...] Read more.
Incorporation of immunodominant T-helper epitopes of licensed vaccines into virus-like particles (VLP) allows to harness T-helper cells induced by the licensed vaccines to provide intrastructural help (ISH) for B-cell responses against the surface proteins of the VLPs. To explore whether ISH could also improve antibody responses to calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticle vaccines we loaded the nanoparticle core with a universal T-helper epitope of Tetanus toxoid (p30) and functionalized the surface of CaP nanoparticles with stabilized trimers of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) resulting in Env-CaP-p30 nanoparticles. In contrast to soluble Env trimers, Env containing CaP nanoparticles induced activation of naïve Env-specific B-cells in vitro. Mice previously vaccinated against Tetanus raised stronger humoral immune responses against Env after immunization with Env-CaP-p30 than mice not vaccinated against Tetanus. The enhancing effect of ISH on anti-Env antibody levels was not attended with increased Env-specific IFN-γ CD4 T-cell responses that otherwise may potentially influence the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Thus, CaP nanoparticles functionalized with stabilized HIV-1 Env trimers and heterologous T-helper epitopes are able to recruit heterologous T-helper cells induced by a licensed vaccine and improve anti-Env antibody responses by intrastructural help. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrophobization of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Control the Mineralization of Organic Templates
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050800 - 24 May 2019
Abstract
The robust, anisotropic tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides a monodisperse particle size and defined surface chemistry. Owing to these properties, it became an excellent bio-template for the synthesis of diverse nanostructured organic/inorganic functional materials. For selective mineralization of the bio-template, specific functional groups [...] Read more.
The robust, anisotropic tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides a monodisperse particle size and defined surface chemistry. Owing to these properties, it became an excellent bio-template for the synthesis of diverse nanostructured organic/inorganic functional materials. For selective mineralization of the bio-template, specific functional groups were introduced by means of different genetically encoded amino acids or peptide sequences into the polar virus surface. An alternative approach for TMV surface functionalization is chemical coupling of organic molecules. To achieve mineralization control in this work, we developed a synthetic strategy to manipulate the surface hydrophilicity of the virus through covalent coupling of polymer molecules. Three different types of polymers, namely the perfluorinated (poly(pentafluorostyrene) (PFS)), the thermo-responsive poly(propylene glycol) acrylate (PPGA), and the block-copolymer polyethylene-block-poly(ethylene glycol) were examined. We have demonstrated that covalent attachment of hydrophobic polymer molecules with proper features retains the integrity of the virus structure. In addition, it was found that the degree of the virus hydrophobicity, examined via a ZnS mineralization test, could be tuned by the polymer properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Secretory Nanoparticles of Neospora caninum Profilin-Fused with the Transmembrane Domain of GP64 from Silkworm Hemolymph
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040593 - 10 Apr 2019
Abstract
Neosporosis, which is caused by Neospora caninum, is a well-known disease in the veterinary field. Infections in pregnant cattle lead to abortion via transplacental (congenitally from mother to fetus) transmission. In this study, a N. caninum profilin (NcPROF), was expressed in silkworm [...] Read more.
Neosporosis, which is caused by Neospora caninum, is a well-known disease in the veterinary field. Infections in pregnant cattle lead to abortion via transplacental (congenitally from mother to fetus) transmission. In this study, a N. caninum profilin (NcPROF), was expressed in silkworm larvae by recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid and was purified from the hemolymph. Three NcPROF constructs were investigated, native NcPROF fused with an N-terminal PA tag (PA-NcPROF), PA-NcPROF fused with the signal sequence of bombyxin from B. mori (bx-PA-NcPROF), and bx-PA-NcPROF with additional C-terminal transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of GP64 from BmNPV (bx-PA-NcPROF-GP64TM). All recombinant proteins were observed extra- and intracellularly in cultured Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae. The bx-PA-NcPROF-GP64TM was partly abnormally secreted, even though it has the transmembrane domain, and only it was pelleted by ultracentrifugation, but PA-NcPROF and bx-PA-NcPROF were not. Additionally, bx-PA-NcPROF-GP64TM was successfully purified from silkworm hemolymph by anti-PA agarose beads while PA-NcPROF and bx-PA-NcPROF were not. The purified bx-PA-NcPROF-GP64TM protein bound to its receptor, mouse Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR-11), and formed unique nanoparticles. These results suggest that profilin fused with GP64TM was secreted as a nanoparticle with binding affinity to its receptor and this nanoparticle formation is advantageous for the development of vaccines to N. caninum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Assembly and Characterization of HBc Derived Virus-like Particles with Magnetic Core
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020155 - 26 Jan 2019
Abstract
Core-virus like particles (VLPs) assembly is a kinetically complex cascade of interactions between viral proteins, nanoparticle’s surface and an ionic environment. Despite many in silico simulations regarding this process, there is still a lack of experimental data. The main goal of this study [...] Read more.
Core-virus like particles (VLPs) assembly is a kinetically complex cascade of interactions between viral proteins, nanoparticle’s surface and an ionic environment. Despite many in silico simulations regarding this process, there is still a lack of experimental data. The main goal of this study was to investigate the capsid protein of hepatitis B virus (HBc) assembly into virus-like particles with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a magnetic core in relation to their characteristics. The native form of HBc was obtained via agroinfection of Nicotiana benthamiana with pEAQ-HBc plasmid. SPIONs of diameter of 15 nm were synthesized and functionalized with two ligands, providing variety in ζ-potential and hydrodynamic diameter. The antigenic potential of the assembled core-VLPs was assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Morphology of SPIONs and core-VLPs was evaluated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The most successful core-VLPs assembly was obtained for SPIONs functionalized with dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) at SPIONs/HBc ratio of 0.2/0.05 mg/mL. ELISA results indicate significant decrease of antigenicity concomitant with core-VLPs assembly. In summary, this study provides an experimental assessment of the crucial parameters guiding SPION-HBc VLPs assembly and evaluates the antigenicity of the obtained structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Three Morphologically Distinct Virus-Like Particles as Nanocarriers for Convection-Enhanced Drug Delivery to Glioblastoma
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121007 - 05 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Glioblastoma is a particularly challenging cancer, as there are currently limited options for treatment. New delivery routes are being explored, including direct intratumoral injection via convection-enhanced delivery (CED). While promising, convection-enhanced delivery of traditional chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin (DOX) has seen limited success. [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma is a particularly challenging cancer, as there are currently limited options for treatment. New delivery routes are being explored, including direct intratumoral injection via convection-enhanced delivery (CED). While promising, convection-enhanced delivery of traditional chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin (DOX) has seen limited success. Several studies have demonstrated that attaching a drug to polymeric nanoscale materials can improve drug delivery efficacy via CED. We therefore set out to evaluate a panel of morphologically distinct protein nanoparticles for their potential as CED drug delivery vehicles for glioblastoma treatment. The panel consisted of three different virus-like particles (VLPs), MS2 spheres, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) disks and nanophage filamentous rods modified with DOX. While all three VLPs displayed adequate drug delivery and cell uptake in vitro, increased survival rates were only observed for glioma-bearing mice that were treated via CED with TMV disks and MS2 spheres conjugated to doxorubicin, with TMV-treated mice showing the best response. Importantly, these improved survival rates were observed after only a single VLP–DOX CED injection several orders of magnitude smaller than traditional IV doses. Overall, this study underscores the potential of nanoscale chemotherapeutic CED using virus-like particles and illustrates the need for further studies into how the overall morphology of VLPs influences their drug delivery properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Research Progress of M13 Bacteriophage-Based Biosensors
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101448 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
Recently, new virus-based sensor systems that operate on M13 bacteriophage infrastructure have attracted considerable attention. These systems can detect a range of chemicals with excellent sensitivity and selectivity. Filaments consistent with M13 bacteriophages can be ordered by highly established forms of self-assembly. This [...] Read more.
Recently, new virus-based sensor systems that operate on M13 bacteriophage infrastructure have attracted considerable attention. These systems can detect a range of chemicals with excellent sensitivity and selectivity. Filaments consistent with M13 bacteriophages can be ordered by highly established forms of self-assembly. This allows M13 bacteriophages to build a homogeneous distribution and infiltrate the network structure of nanostructures under mild conditions. Phage display, involving the genetic engineering of M13 bacteriophages, is another strong feature of the M13 bacteriophage as a functional building block. The numerous genetic modification possibilities of M13 bacteriophages are clearly the key features, and far more applications are envisaged. This paper reviews the recent progress in the application of the M13 bacteriophage self-assembly structures through to sensor systems and discusses future M13 bacteriophage technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
Open AccessReview
Virus-Incorporated Biomimetic Nanocomposites for Tissue Regeneration
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9071014 - 15 Jul 2019
Abstract
Owing to the astonishing properties of non-harmful viruses, tissue regeneration using virus-based biomimetic materials has been an emerging trend recently. The selective peptide expression and enrichment of the desired peptide on the surface, monodispersion, self-assembly, and ease of genetic and chemical modification properties [...] Read more.
Owing to the astonishing properties of non-harmful viruses, tissue regeneration using virus-based biomimetic materials has been an emerging trend recently. The selective peptide expression and enrichment of the desired peptide on the surface, monodispersion, self-assembly, and ease of genetic and chemical modification properties have allowed viruses to take a long stride in biomedical applications. Researchers have published many reviews so far describing unusual properties of virus-based nanoparticles, phage display, modification, and possible biomedical applications, including biosensors, bioimaging, tissue regeneration, and drug delivery, however the integration of the virus into different biomaterials for the application of tissue regeneration is not yet discussed in detail. This review will focus on various morphologies of virus-incorporated biomimetic nanocomposites in tissue regeneration and highlight the progress, challenges, and future directions in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Based Nanomaterials and Nanostructures)
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