Special Issue "Preparation and Characterization of Nanomaterials with Multifunctional Properties"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanofabrication and Nanomanufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Félix Zamora
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Tomás y Valiente nº7, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: coordination polymers; covalent organic frameworks; bidimensional materials; molecular wires; nanochemistry; supramolecular chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Carmen Montoro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Tomás y Valiente nº7. 28049-Madrid, Spain
Interests: porous materials; metal and covalent organic frameworks; membrane preparation; ionic conductivity; water treatment; gas adsorption; gas separation; energy storage; nanomaterials; sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multifunctional nanomaterials have become an increasingly popular field of research over the past few decades due to the significant changes in physical and/or chemical properties that occur at this small scale. Specifically, it has been seen that interesting modifications take place in magnetic, electronic, optical, and catalytic properties, among others, with respect to materials of larger dimensions. Accordingly, nanomaterials are used in a variety of applications, including catalysis, gas storage, spin crossover, sensors, magnetics, optics, and drug delivery.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will present recent innovative scientific works, collected from both academia and industry, that describe the state of the art of nanomaterials with multifunctional properties. Moreover, it is expected to present an overview of different methods used for the preparation and characterization of nanomaterials for potential applications.

The readers will find relevant information regarding some of the following topics:

  • Synthesis of multifunctional nanomaterials;
  • Organic/inorganic multifunctional nanocomposites;
  • New characterization techniques for functional nanomaterials;
  • Theoretical studies and modeling;
  • Nanocomposites and their applications;
  • Stimuli-responsive nanosystems;
  • Catalysis;
  • Bionanomaterials.

Finally, we would like to invite you to submit your manuscript to this Special Issue by sending a communication or a full paper from your group or a review article on some of these topics. We are looking forward to receiving your contributions.


Prof. Dr. Félix Zamora
Dr. Carmen Montoro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Tailoring Interfacial Exchange Anisotropy in Hard–Soft Core-Shell Ferrite Nanoparticles for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020262 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 83
Abstract
Magnetically hard–soft core-shell ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized using an organometallic decomposition method through seed-mediated growth. Two sets of core-shell nanoparticles (S1 and S2) with different shell (Fe3O4) thicknesses and similar core (CoFe2O4) sizes are obtained [...] Read more.
Magnetically hard–soft core-shell ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized using an organometallic decomposition method through seed-mediated growth. Two sets of core-shell nanoparticles (S1 and S2) with different shell (Fe3O4) thicknesses and similar core (CoFe2O4) sizes are obtained by varying the initial quantities of seed nanoparticles of size 6.0 ± 1.0 nm. The nanoparticles synthesized have average sizes of 9.5 ± 1.1 (S1) and 12.2 ± 1.7 (S2) nm with corresponding shell thicknesses of 3.5 and 6.1 nm. Magnetic properties are investigated under field-cooled and zero-field-cooled conditions at several temperatures and field cooling values. Magnetic heating efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia applications is investigated by measuring the specific absorption rate (SAR) in alternating magnetic fields at several field strengths and frequencies. The exchange bias is found to have a nonmonotonic and oscillatory relationship with temperature at all fields. SAR values of both core-shell samples are found to be considerably larger than that of the single-phase bare core particles. The effective anisotropy and SAR values are found to be larger in S2 than those in S1. However, the saturation magnetization displays the opposite behavior. These results are attributed to the occurrence of spin-glass regions at the core-shell interface of different amounts in the two samples. The novel outcome is that the interfacial exchange anisotropy of core-shell nanoparticles can be tailored to produce large effective magnetic anisotropy and thus large SAR values. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of the Processing on the Resistance–Strain Response of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Natural Rubber Composites for Use in Large Deformation Sensors
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071845 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
The dispersion, electrical conductivities, mechanical properties and resistance–strain response behaviors of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/natural rubber (NR) composites synthesized by the different processing conditions are systematically investigated at both macro- and micro-perspectives. Compared with the solution and flocculation methods, the two roll method [...] Read more.
The dispersion, electrical conductivities, mechanical properties and resistance–strain response behaviors of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/natural rubber (NR) composites synthesized by the different processing conditions are systematically investigated at both macro- and micro-perspectives. Compared with the solution and flocculation methods, the two roll method produced the best MWCNTs distribution since the materials are mixed by strong shear stress between the two rolls. An excellent segregated conductive network is formed and that a low percolation threshold is obtained (~1 wt.%) by the two roll method. Different from the higher increases in conductivity for the composites obtained by the solution and flocculation methods when the MWCNT content is higher than 3 wt.%, the composite prepared by the two roll method displays obvious improvements in its mechanical properties. In addition, the two roll method promotes good stability, repeatability, and durability along with an ultrahigh sensitivity (GFmax = 974.2) and a large strain range (ε = 109%). The ‘shoulder peak’ phenomenon has not been observed in the composite prepared by the two roll method, confirming its potential for application as a large deformation monitoring sensor. Moreover, a mathematical model is proposed to explain the resistance–strain sensing mechanism. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Deep Learning Approach for Molecular Classification Based on AFM Images
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071658 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
In spite of the unprecedented resolution provided by non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) with CO-functionalized and advances in the interpretation of the observed contrast, the unambiguous identification of molecular systems solely based on AFM images, without any prior information, remains an open problem. [...] Read more.
In spite of the unprecedented resolution provided by non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) with CO-functionalized and advances in the interpretation of the observed contrast, the unambiguous identification of molecular systems solely based on AFM images, without any prior information, remains an open problem. This work presents a first step towards the automatic classification of AFM experimental images by a deep learning model trained essentially with a theoretically generated dataset. We analyze the limitations of two standard models for pattern recognition when applied to AFM image classification and develop a model with the optimal depth to provide accurate results and to retain the ability to generalize. We show that a variational autoencoder (VAE) provides a very efficient way to incorporate, from very few experimental images, characteristic features into the training set that assure a high accuracy in the classification of both theoretical and experimental images. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Preparation and Properties of Electrospun Phenylethynyl—Terminated Polyimide Nano-Fibrous Membranes with Potential Applications as Solvent-Free and High-Temperature Resistant Adhesives for Harsh Environments
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061525 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
High-temperature-resistant polymeric adhesives with high servicing temperatures and high adhesion strengths are highly desired in aerospace, aviation, microelectronic and other high-tech areas. The currently used high-temperature resistant polymeric adhesives, such as polyamic acid (PAA), are usually made from the high contents of solvents [...] Read more.
High-temperature-resistant polymeric adhesives with high servicing temperatures and high adhesion strengths are highly desired in aerospace, aviation, microelectronic and other high-tech areas. The currently used high-temperature resistant polymeric adhesives, such as polyamic acid (PAA), are usually made from the high contents of solvents in the composition, which might cause adhesion failure due to the undesirable voids caused by the evaporation of the solvents. In the current work, electrospun preimidized polyimide (PI) nano-fibrous membranes (NFMs) were proposed to be used as solvent-free or solvent-less adhesives for stainless steel adhesion. In order to enhance the adhesion reliability of the PI NFMs, thermally crosslinkable phenylethynyl end-cappers were incorporated into the PIs derived from 3,3’,4,4’-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and 3,3-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]phthalide (BAPPT). The derived phenylethynyl-terminated PETI-10K and PETI-20K with the controlled molecular weights of 10,000 g mol−1 and 20,000 g mol−1, respectively, showed good solubility in polar aprotic solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The PI NFMs were successfully fabricated by electrospinning with the PETI/DMAc solutions. The ultrafine PETI NFMs showed the average fiber diameters (dav) of 627 nm for PETI-10K 695 nm for PETI-20K, respectively. The PETI NFMs showed good thermal resistance, which is reflected in the glass transition temperatures (Tgs) above 270 °C. The PETI NFMs exhibited excellent thermoplasticity at elevated temperatures. The stainless steel adherends were successfully adhered using the PETI NFMs as the adhesives. The PI NFMs provided good adhesion to the stainless steels with the single lap shear strengths (LSS) higher than 20.0 MPa either at room temperature (25 °C) or at an elevated temperature (200 °C). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Magnetism and ε-τ Phase Transformation in MnAl-Based Nanocomposite Magnets
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040896 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
Melt spun ribbons of Mn53Al45C2 and Mn52Al46C2 have been synthesized by rapid quenching of the melt with the purpose of monitoring the ε-τ phase transformation to show technologically feasible ways to increase magnetic [...] Read more.
Melt spun ribbons of Mn53Al45C2 and Mn52Al46C2 have been synthesized by rapid quenching of the melt with the purpose of monitoring the ε-τ phase transformation to show technologically feasible ways to increase magnetic parameters and to illustrate the viability of these alloys as the next generation of rare earth (RE)-free magnets. By differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), activation energies and temperatures of onset of the ε-τ phase transformation were obtained. Structural analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the resulting XRD patterns were quantitatively assessed using full profile Rietveld-type analysis. Appropriate annealing was performed in order to enable the ε-τ phase transformation. While hcp ε-phase was found to be predominant in the as-cast samples, after appropriate annealing, the tetragonal τ-phase, the one that furnishes the relevant magnetic response, was found to be predominant with an abundance of about 90%. The data suggested a mechanism of hcp ε-phase decomposition controlled by the segregation towards the interfacial regions, having the rate of transformation governed by antiphase boundary diffusion processes. Magnetic measurements of annealed sample Mn53Al45C2, consisting of predominant tetragonal τ-phase, showed high values of magnetization and increased coercivity, consistent with an energy product of about 10 MGOe, similar with previously reported magnetization measurements, providing further insight into the realization of future class of RE-free low-cost permanent magnets. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Degradable Spirocyclic Polyacetal-Based Core-Amphiphilic Assemblies for Encapsulation and Release of Hydrophobic Cargo
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010161 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Polymeric nanomaterials that degrade in acidic environments have gained considerable attention in nanomedicine for intracellular drug delivery and cancer therapy. Among various acid-degradable linkages, spirocyclic acetals have rarely been used to fabricate such vehicles. In addition to acid sensitivity, they benefit from conformational [...] Read more.
Polymeric nanomaterials that degrade in acidic environments have gained considerable attention in nanomedicine for intracellular drug delivery and cancer therapy. Among various acid-degradable linkages, spirocyclic acetals have rarely been used to fabricate such vehicles. In addition to acid sensitivity, they benefit from conformational rigidity that is otherwise not attainable by their non-spirocyclic analogs. Herein, amphiphilic spirocyclic polyacetals are synthesized by Cu-catalyzed alkyne–azide “click” polymerization. Unlike conventional block copolymers, which often form core–shell structures, these polymers self-assemble to form core amphiphilic assemblies capable of encapsulating Nile red as a hydrophobic model drug. In vitro experiments show that while release from these materials can occur at neutral pH with preservation of their integrity, acidic pH accelerates efficient cargo release and leads to the complete degradation of assemblies. Moreover, cellular assays reveal that these materials are fully cytocompatible, interact with the plasma membrane, and can be internalized by cells, rendering them as potential candidates for cancer therapy and/or drug delivery. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
pH-Dependent Formation of Oriented Zinc Oxide Nanostructures in the Presence of Tannic Acid
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010034 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 912
Abstract
To crucially comprehend the relaying factors behind the growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures, the needs to understand the cause of preferences in the enhancement of desired physicochemical properties are essential. The particular oriented attachment (OA) is believed to become the cause of the [...] Read more.
To crucially comprehend the relaying factors behind the growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures, the needs to understand the cause of preferences in the enhancement of desired physicochemical properties are essential. The particular oriented attachment (OA) is believed to become the cause of the classical growth pattern of ZnO nanostructures which is mainly controlled by the Ostwald ripening (OR) process. In the present work, the concerns over the systematic changes in size and the morphological surface of ZnO nanostructures upon exposure to tannic acid (TA) prepared by drop-wise method turns the particles to different surface adjustment state. Here, we assessed the TA capping ability and its tendency to influence the OA process of the ZnO nanostructures. The detailed process of the growth-based TA system via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and FFT autocorrelation revealed the pH effect on their physical properties which proved the transition surface properties state of the particles from rough to smooth states due to oriented attachment. For pure ZnO nanostructures, the surface is almost smooth owing to the strong bonding particles which are then changed to coarsened surface structures upon the introduction of TA. Strong surface adsorption of Zn cations and phenol ligands mediated the agglomerated nanocrystals, surprisingly with smaller nanostructures dimension. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Advances and Novel Perspectives on Colloids, Hydrogels, and Aerogels Based on Coordination Bonds with Biological Interest Ligands
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071865 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 789
Abstract
This perspective article shows new advances in the synthesis of colloids, gels, and aerogels generated by combining metal ions and ligands of biological interest, such as nucleobases, nucleotides, peptides, or amino acids, among other derivatives. The characteristic dynamism of coordination bonds between metal [...] Read more.
This perspective article shows new advances in the synthesis of colloids, gels, and aerogels generated by combining metal ions and ligands of biological interest, such as nucleobases, nucleotides, peptides, or amino acids, among other derivatives. The characteristic dynamism of coordination bonds between metal center and biocompatible-type ligands, together with molecular recognition capability of these ligands, are crucial to form colloids and gels. These supramolecular structures are generated by forming weak van der Waals bonds such as hydrogen bonds or π–π stacking between the aromatic rings. Most gels are made up of nano-sized fibrillar networks, although their morphologies can be tuned depending on the synthetic conditions. These new materials respond to different stimuli such as pH, stirring, pressure, temperature, the presence of solvents, among others. For these reasons, they can trap and release molecules or metal ions in a controlled way allowing their application in drug delivery as antimicrobial and self-healable materials or sensors. In addition, the correct selection of the metal ion enables to build catalytic or luminescent metal–organic gels. Even recently, the use of these colloids as 3D-dimensional printable inks has been published. The elimination of the solvent trapped in the gels allows the transformation of these into metal–organic aerogels (MOAs) and metal–organic xerogels (MOXs), increasing the number of possible applications by generating new porous materials and composites useful in adsorption, conversion, and energy storage. The examples shown in this work allow us to visualize the current interest in this new type of material and their perspectives in the short-medium term. Furthermore, these investigations show that there is still a lot of work to be done, opening the door to new and interesting applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
A Perspective on the Application of Covalent Organic Frameworks for Detection and Water Treatment
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071651 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Global population growth and water resource scarcity are significant social problems currently being studied by many researchers focusing on finding new materials for water treatment. The aim is to obtain quality water suitable for drinking and industrial consumption. In this sense, an emergent [...] Read more.
Global population growth and water resource scarcity are significant social problems currently being studied by many researchers focusing on finding new materials for water treatment. The aim is to obtain quality water suitable for drinking and industrial consumption. In this sense, an emergent class of crystalline porous materials known as Covalent-Organic Frameworks (COFs) offers a wide range of possibilities since their structures can be designed on demand for specific applications. Indeed, in the last decade, many efforts have been made for their use in water treatment. This perspective article aims to overview the state-of-the-art COFs collecting the most recent results in the field for water detection of pollutants and water treatment. After the introduction, where we overview the classical design strategies on COF design and synthesis for obtaining chemically stable COFs, we summarize the different experimental methodologies used for COFs processing in the form of supported and free-standing membranes and colloids. Finally, we describe the use of COFs in processes involving the detection of pollutants in water and wastewater treatment, such as the capture of organic compounds, heavy metals, and dyes, the degradation of organic pollutants, as well as in desalination processes. Finally, we provide a perspective on the field and the potential technological use of these novel materials. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop