Special Issue "Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality"

A special issue of Multimodal Technologies and Interaction (ISSN 2414-4088).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2022 | Viewed by 4392

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mark Billinghurst
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
Interests: augmented reality; empathic computing; virtual reality; interaction design; gesture based interfaces; multimodal interfaces
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Fotis Liarokapis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CYENS - Centre of Excellence, Dimarchias Square 23, Nicosia 1016, Cyprus
Interests: virtual reality; augmented reality; human–machine interaction; brain–computer interfaces; serious games; procedural modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Lars Erik Holmquist
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Design, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Interests: ubiquitous computing; mobile computing; augmented reality (AR); cross/extended reality (XR); interaction design
Prof. Dr. Mu-Chun Su
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Interests: machine learning; computational intelligence; swarm intelligence; neural networks; fuzzy systems; optimization algorithms; pattern recognition; image processing; rehabilitation technology; bioinformatics processing; robotics; E-learning; augmented reality; human-computer interfaces and interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, VR and AR technology have seen remarkable progress. Their fundamental problems, such as tracking and registration, have been solved almost entirely, and their applications for education, medicine, architecture, automobiles, advertising, entertainment, art and culture, etc. that researchers could only dream of 20 years ago have been put to practical use today. As some basic research has come to fruition, expectations for VR and AR have increased, and opportunities for advanced studies have also expanded. What should remote communications be when real-time three-dimensional reconstruction is realized and 5G high-speed communication becomes widespread? What information should be selected and presented to the user when advanced situational awareness becomes possible? What kind of short- and long-term effects on our body and mind will be exhibited by augmented vision or body modification? VR and AR are not just high-level computing environments but are becoming the next generation of social infrastructure. Various technologies, such as artificial intelligence, human augmentation, and brain science, are progressing and merging with VR and AR to become a driving force that puts VR and AR to even higher levels.

This Special Issue calls for interesting studies that will open up new horizons of VR and AR. In addition to research that has steadily improved existing issues, we welcome research papers that present new possibilities of VR and AR. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • 360 video;
  • VR/AR applications;
  • Artificial intelligence/machine learning for VR/AR;
  • Brain science for VR/AR;
  • VR/AR collaboration;
  • Computer graphics for VR/AR;
  • Computer vision for VR/AR;
  • Content creation and management for VR/AR;
  • Context awareness for VR/AR;
  • Education with VR/AR;
  • Entertainment, narrative and games with VR/AR
  • Multimodal VR/AR;
  • Display technologies for VR/AR;
  • Ethics/humanity in VR/AR;
  • Human augmentations with VR/AR;
  • Human–computer interactions in VR/AR;
  • Human factors in VR/AR;
  • Perception/presence in VR/AR;
  • Performance, cultural heritage and art in VR/AR;
  • Physiological sensing for VR/AR;
  • User experience/usability in VR/AR;
  • Virtual humans/avatars in VR/AR;
  • Visualization/visual analytics with VR/AR;
  • Wellbeing with VR/AR.

Prof. Dr. Mark Billinghurst
Prof. Dr. Fotis Liarokapis
Prof. Dr. Lars Holmquist
Prof. Dr. Mu-Chun Su
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Interactive Scientific Visualization of Fluid Flow Simulation Data Using AR Technology-Open-Source Library OpenVisFlow
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2022, 6(9), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti6090081 - 14 Sep 2022
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Abstract
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are being used more and more in the industry to understand and optimize processes such as fluid flows. At the same time, tools such as augmented reality (AR) are becoming increasingly important with the realization of Industry 5.0 to [...] Read more.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are being used more and more in the industry to understand and optimize processes such as fluid flows. At the same time, tools such as augmented reality (AR) are becoming increasingly important with the realization of Industry 5.0 to make data and processes more tangible. Placing the two together paves the way for a new method of active learning and also for an interesting and engaging way of presenting industry processes. It also enables students to reinforce their understanding of the fundamental concepts of fluid dynamics in an interactive way. However, this is not really being utilized yet. For this reason, in this paper, we aim to combine these two powerful tools. Furthermore, we present the framework of a modular open-source library for scientific visualization of fluid flow “OpenVisFlow” which simplifies the creation of such applications and enables seamless visualization without other software by allowing users to integrate the visualization step into the simulation code. Using this framework and the open-source extension AR-Core, we show how a new markerless visualization tool can be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality)
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Article
A Typology of Virtual Reality Locomotion Techniques
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2022, 6(9), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti6090072 - 25 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Researchers have proposed a wide range of categorization schemes in order to characterize the space of VR locomotion techniques. In a previous work, a typology of VR locomotion techniques was proposed, introducing motion-based, roomscale-based, controller-based, and teleportation-based types of VR locomotion. The fact [...] Read more.
Researchers have proposed a wide range of categorization schemes in order to characterize the space of VR locomotion techniques. In a previous work, a typology of VR locomotion techniques was proposed, introducing motion-based, roomscale-based, controller-based, and teleportation-based types of VR locomotion. The fact that (i) the proposed typology is used widely and makes a significant research impact in the field and (ii) the VR locomotion field is a considerably active research field, creates the need for this typology to be up-to-date and valid. Therefore, the present study builds on this previous work, and the typology’s consistency is investigated through a systematic literature review. Altogether, 42 articles were included in this literature review, eliciting 80 instances of 10 VR locomotion techniques. The results indicated that current typology cannot cover teleportation-based techniques enabled by motion (e.g., gestures and gazes). Therefore, the typology was updated, and a new type was added: “motion-based teleporting.” Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality)
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Article
Inter- and Transcultural Learning in Social Virtual Reality: A Proposal for an Inter- and Transcultural Virtual Object Database to be Used in the Implementation, Reflection, and Evaluation of Virtual Encounters
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2022, 6(7), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti6070050 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 582
Abstract
Visual stimuli are frequently used to improve memory, language learning or perception, and understanding of metacognitive processes. However, in virtual reality (VR), there are few systematically and empirically derived databases. This paper proposes the first collection of virtual objects based on empirical evaluation [...] Read more.
Visual stimuli are frequently used to improve memory, language learning or perception, and understanding of metacognitive processes. However, in virtual reality (VR), there are few systematically and empirically derived databases. This paper proposes the first collection of virtual objects based on empirical evaluation for inter-and transcultural encounters between English- and German-speaking learners. We used explicit and implicit measurement methods to identify cultural associations and the degree of stereotypical perception for each virtual stimuli (n = 293) through two online studies, including native German and English-speaking participants. The analysis resulted in a final well-describable database of 128 objects (called InteractionSuitcase). In future applications, the objects can be used as a great interaction or conversation asset and behavioral measurement tool in social VR applications, especially in the field of foreign language education. For example, encounters can use the objects to describe their culture, or teachers can intuitively assess stereotyped attitudes of the encounters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality)
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Article
Vocational Training in Virtual Reality: A Case Study Using the 4C/ID Model
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2022, 6(7), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti6070049 - 24 Jun 2022
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Abstract
Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology with a variety of potential benefits for vocational training. Therefore, this paper presents a VR training based on the highly validated 4C/ID model to train vocational competencies in the field of vehicle painting. The following 4C/ID [...] Read more.
Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology with a variety of potential benefits for vocational training. Therefore, this paper presents a VR training based on the highly validated 4C/ID model to train vocational competencies in the field of vehicle painting. The following 4C/ID components were designed using the associated 10 step approach: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The paper describes the instructional design process including an elaborated blueprint for a VR training application for aspiring vehicle painters. We explain the model’s principles and features and their suitability for designing a VR vocational training that fosters integrated competence acquisition. Following the methodology of design-based research, several research methods (e.g., a target group analysis) and the ongoing development of prototypes enabled agile process structures. Results indicate that the 4C/ID model and the 10 step approach promote the instructional design process using VR in vocational training. Implementation and methodological issues that arose during the design process (e.g., limited time within VR) are adequately discussed in the article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality)
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Article
Didactic Use of Virtual Reality in Colombian Universities: Professors’ Perspective
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2022, 6(5), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti6050038 - 16 May 2022
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Abstract
This paper presents quantitative research on the perception of the didactic use of virtual reality by university professors in Colombia, with special attention to the differences according to their area of knowledge, as the main variable, and gender and digital generation, as secondary [...] Read more.
This paper presents quantitative research on the perception of the didactic use of virtual reality by university professors in Colombia, with special attention to the differences according to their area of knowledge, as the main variable, and gender and digital generation, as secondary variables. The study involved 204 professors from different Colombian universities. As an instrument, a survey designed for this purpose was used with four scales that were used to measure, on a Likert scale, different dimensions involving the participants’ perception of the use of virtual reality in the classroom. The answers were analyzed statistically and the differences in the perceptions have been identified by means of parametric statistical tests according to the following: (i) area of knowledge, (ii) gender, (iii) digital generation of the participants. The results showed that the participants expressed high valuations of virtual reality, despite having intermediate or low levels of digital competence. Gaps were identified in terms of area of knowledge, gender, and digital generation (digital natives or immigrants) with respect to opinions of virtual reality and digital competence. The highest valuations of virtual reality are given by professors of Humanities, and by digital natives. It is suggested that Colombian universities implement training plans on digital competence for professors and that these plans be aimed at strengthening knowledge of virtual reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality)
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Review

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Review
Design Considerations for Immersive Virtual Reality Applications for Older Adults: A Scoping Review
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2022, 6(7), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti6070060 - 20 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Immersive virtual reality (iVR) has gained considerable attention recently with increasing affordability and accessibility of the hardware. iVR applications for older adults present tremendous potential for diverse interventions and innovations. The iVR literature, however, provides a limited understanding of guiding design considerations and [...] Read more.
Immersive virtual reality (iVR) has gained considerable attention recently with increasing affordability and accessibility of the hardware. iVR applications for older adults present tremendous potential for diverse interventions and innovations. The iVR literature, however, provides a limited understanding of guiding design considerations and evaluations pertaining to user experience (UX). To address this gap, we present a state-of-the-art scoping review of literature on iVR applications developed for older adults over 65 years. We performed a search in ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, and PubMed (1 January 2010–15 December 2019) and found 36 out of 3874 papers met the inclusion criteria. We identified 10 distinct sets of design considerations that guided target users and physical configuration, hardware use, and software design. Most studies carried episodic UX where only 2 captured anticipated UX and 7 measured longitudinal experiences. We discuss the interplay between our findings and future directions to design effective, safe, and engaging iVR applications for older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality)
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