Special Issue "Recent Advances in Augmented Reality"

A special issue of Multimodal Technologies and Interaction (ISSN 2414-4088).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mark Billinghurst
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
Interests: augmented reality; empathic computing; virtual reality; interaction design; gesture based interfaces; multimodal interfaces
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Kiyoshi Kiyokawa
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Cybernetics and Reality Engineering (CARE) Laboratory, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
Interests: augmented reality; mixed reality; virtual reality; human augmentation; 3D user interfaces
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of Augmented Reality (AR) has its roots back in the 1960s and earlier, but, over the last few years, there has been a significant increase in AR research and commercialization. The rise of powerful mobile phones means that almost everyone with a smart phone in their pocket can have an AR experience, while there are many head-mounted displays becoming available that provide a more compelling application of the technology. Applications like Pokémon Go are used by hundreds of millions of users, and Microsoft, DAQRI, Meta, and others are selling display technologies could dramatically change work and play over the next few years.

However, despite the rise in popularity there is still a significant amount of research that needs to be done before the ultimate AR vision of a seamless merging of real and digital content is achieved. This includes research in the key areas of Display, Tracking and Interaction that combine to provide the AR-user experience. For example, current see-through head worn display technology is typically bulky, has a narrow field of view and does not support occlusion of virtual content by objects in the real world. Current interaction with AR content is very different from natural speech and gesture interaction with real objects, and tracking technology often work over a limited area or with low resolution.

For this Special Issue we encourage authors to submit original research articles, works in progress, surveys, reviews, and viewpoint articles. We are particularly interested in presenting emerging technologies in Augmented Reality that may have significant impact on the field for years to come. Topics of interest for the Special Issue include (but are not limited to):

  • Augmented Reality
  • Mixed Reality
  • Display technologies
  • Interaction metaphors
  • User Experience
  • Collaborative Applications
  • Empathic Computing and AR
  • Human Factors

Prof. Dr. Mark Billinghurst
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Virtuality Continuum for Complex Rule-Set Education in the Context of Soccer Rule Comprehension
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti1040030 - 09 Nov 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
We present an exploratory study to assess the benefits of using Augmented Reality (AR) in training sports rule comprehension. Soccer is the chosen context for this study due to the wide range of complexity in the rules and regulations. Observers must understand and [...] Read more.
We present an exploratory study to assess the benefits of using Augmented Reality (AR) in training sports rule comprehension. Soccer is the chosen context for this study due to the wide range of complexity in the rules and regulations. Observers must understand and holistically evaluate the proximity of players in the game to the ball and other visual objects, such as the goal, penalty area, and other players. Grounded in previous literature investigating the effects of Virtual Reality (VR) scenarios on transfer of training (ToT), we explore how three different interfaces influence user perception using both qualitative and quantitative measures. To better understand how effective augmented reality technology is when combined with learning systems, we compare results on the effects of learning outcomes in three interface conditions: AR, VR and a traditional Desktop interface. We also compare these interfaces as measured by user experience, engagement, and immersion. Results show that there were no significance difference among VR and AR; however, these participants outperformed the Desktop group which needed a higher number of adaptations to acquire the same knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Open AccessArticle
The Emperor’s New Augmented Clothes. Digital Objects as Part of the Every Day
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti1040026 - 23 Oct 2017
Abstract
The main aim of this work is to solve a problem that Augmented Reality is facing by using phenomenological and phenomenological analyses and projectors. Augmented reality seeks to merge the digital and real world by producing a mixed reality where the digital objects [...] Read more.
The main aim of this work is to solve a problem that Augmented Reality is facing by using phenomenological and phenomenological analyses and projectors. Augmented reality seeks to merge the digital and real world by producing a mixed reality where the digital objects are usually visualised thanks to the head mounted or mobile devices. However, this technology is facing problems because the objects generated by the digital devices are existing merely inside the small group of people while using specific devices. Therefore, these objects look fictitious for the other members of the society who are not using them. In order to analyse the elements which make these objects fictitious for the other member of the society, we will take into account the story of The Emperor’s new clothes because, even in this story, there are fictional entities not perceivable by other members of the community. Thanks to this story, it will be possible to highlight some elements which make the objects part of the everyday world. Moreover, it will show how the intersubjectivity of these objects is directly related to their way of being perceived by the subjects and, in the case of augmented reality, to the devices used to make them perceivable. For this reason, it is possible to solve the problem Augmented Reality is facing by changing the devices used to produce these digital objects. At the end of the work, we will propose a project which can solve the problem by following the elements previously highlighted. We will show how, thanks to wearable projectors, it is possible to produce digital clothes as part of the everyday world of every subject. Thanks to these digital clothes people will be able to wear the digital objects as if they were common, usual objects without being naked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
EyeAR: Refocusable Augmented Reality Content through Eye Measurements
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti1040022 - 26 Sep 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Augmented Reality (AR) superimposes computer graphics (CG) onto a user’s view of the real world. A key quality problem in this field is to achieve coherence between reality and CG when the user’s eyes refocus or change pupil size. We designed and evaluated [...] Read more.
Augmented Reality (AR) superimposes computer graphics (CG) onto a user’s view of the real world. A key quality problem in this field is to achieve coherence between reality and CG when the user’s eyes refocus or change pupil size. We designed and evaluated a display that improves coherence by measuring the user’s eye state and continuously adapting CG accordingly. Our tabletop prototype emulates an Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display, a common AR display device. In our evaluation, participants observed three pillars at different depths. We then challenged them to identify a virtual pillar among the three while freely refocusing their eyes. Results show that our design significantly improved realism. Compared to Light Field Displays, our design aims to simplify display-optics while providing similar quality. We could only partially achieve this goal. We discuss the lessons we learned and how we plan to overcome the remaining challenges. The experimental protocol from our evaluation is useful for display developers as it can be used to measure the coherence of a display. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Open AccessArticle
Pictorial AR Tag with Hidden Multi-Level Bar-Code and Its Potential Applications
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti1030020 - 19 Sep 2017
Abstract
For decades, researchers have been trying to create intuitive virtual environments by blending reality and virtual reality, thus enabling general users to interact with the digital domain as easily as with the real world. The result is “augmented reality” (AR). AR seamlessly superimposes [...] Read more.
For decades, researchers have been trying to create intuitive virtual environments by blending reality and virtual reality, thus enabling general users to interact with the digital domain as easily as with the real world. The result is “augmented reality” (AR). AR seamlessly superimposes virtual objects on to a real environment in three dimensions (3D) and in real time. One of the most important parts that helps close the gap between virtuality and reality is the marker used in the AR system. While pictorial marker and bar-code marker are the two most commonly used marker types in the market, they have some disadvantages in visual and processing performance. In this paper, we present a novelty method that combines the bar-code with the original feature of a colour picture (e.g., photos, trading cards, advertisement’s figure). Our method decorates on top of the original pictorial images additional features with a single stereogram image that optically conceals a multi-level (3D) bar-code. Thus, it has a larger capability of storing data compared to the general 1D barcode. This new type of marker has the potential of addressing the issues that the current types of marker are facing. It not only keeps the original information of the picture but also contains encoded numeric information. In our limited evaluation, this pictorial bar-code shows a relatively robust performance under various conditions and scaling; thus, it provides a promising AR approach to be used in many applications such as trading card games, educations, and advertisements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Open AccessArticle
A Work Area Visualization by Multi-View Camera-Based Diminished Reality
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti1030018 - 05 Sep 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hand-held tools are indispensable for efficient manual working in fields ranging from woodworking to surgery. In this paper, we present a diminished reality (DR) method to visualize areas occluded by hands and tools in various hand-working scenarios. We propose a redesigned existing arbitrary [...] Read more.
Hand-held tools are indispensable for efficient manual working in fields ranging from woodworking to surgery. In this paper, we present a diminished reality (DR) method to visualize areas occluded by hands and tools in various hand-working scenarios. We propose a redesigned existing arbitrary viewpoint image generation method for DR applications as a core DR background rendering to recover views without undesirable objects. We conducted quantitative and qualitative experiments using real data to validate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results showed that our method runs in real-time (40.1 fps) and surpasses conventional methods (including image inpainting-based and geometry-based approaches) in terms of image similarity measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Augmented Reality: Advances in Diagnostic Imaging
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti1040029 - 08 Nov 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
In recent years, advances in medical imaging have provided opportunities for enhanced diagnosis and characterization of diseases including cancer. The improved spatial resolution provides outstanding detail of intricate anatomical structures, but has challenged physicians on how to effectively and efficiently review the extremely [...] Read more.
In recent years, advances in medical imaging have provided opportunities for enhanced diagnosis and characterization of diseases including cancer. The improved spatial resolution provides outstanding detail of intricate anatomical structures, but has challenged physicians on how to effectively and efficiently review the extremely large datasets of over 1000 images. Standard volume rendering attempts to tackle this problem as it provides a display of 3D information on a flat 2D screen, but it lacks depth perception and has poor human–machine interface (HMI). Most recently, Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR) with depth 3-dimensional (D3D) imaging provides depth perception through binocular vision, head tracking for improved HMI and other key AR features. In this article, we will discuss current and future medical applications of AR including assessing breast cancer. We contend that leveraging AR technology may enhance diagnosis, save cost and improve patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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Open AccessReview
A State-of-the-Art Review of Augmented Reality in Engineering Analysis and Simulation
Multimodal Technologies Interact. 2017, 1(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti1030017 - 05 Sep 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Augmented reality (AR) has recently become a worldwide research topic. AR technology renders intuitive computer-generated contents on users’ physical surroundings. To improve process efficiency and productivity, researchers and developers have paid increasing attention to AR applications in engineering analysis and simulation. The integration [...] Read more.
Augmented reality (AR) has recently become a worldwide research topic. AR technology renders intuitive computer-generated contents on users’ physical surroundings. To improve process efficiency and productivity, researchers and developers have paid increasing attention to AR applications in engineering analysis and simulation. The integration of AR with numerical simulation, such as the finite element method, provides a cognitive and scientific way for users to analyze practical problems. By incorporating scientific visualization technologies, an AR-based system superimposes engineering analysis and simulation results directly on real-world objects. Engineering analysis and simulation involving diverse types of data are normally processed using specific computer software. Correct and effective visualization of these data using an AR platform can reduce the misinterpretation in spatial and logical aspects. Moreover, tracking performance of the AR platforms in engineering analysis and simulation is crucial as it influences the overall user experience. The operating environment of the AR platforms requires robust tracking performance to deliver stable and accurate information to the users. In addition, over the past several decades, AR has undergone a transition from desktop to mobile computing. The portability and propagation of mobile platforms has provided engineers with convenient access to relevant information in situ. However, on-site working environment imposes constraints on the development of mobile AR-based systems. This paper aims to provide a systematic overview of AR in engineering analysis and simulation. The visualization, tracking techniques as well as the implementation on mobile platforms are discussed. Each technique is analyzed with respect to its pros and cons, as well its suitability to particular types of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Augmented Reality)
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