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Special Issue "Modification of Starch – from Structure, through Functionalization to Special Applications"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Janusz Kapusniak
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Dietetics and Food Studies, Faculty of Science & Technology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: chemical and biochemical modifications of polysaccharides; starch; dietary fiber; resistant starch resistant dextrins; prebiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Idalina Gonçalves
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: starch-rich byproducts; starch-based materials; hydrophobization; elasticity; plasticity; active packaging; subtractive manufacturing; additive manufacturing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Worldwide, industries are striving to reduce the pollutions associated with raw material processing and new material production. There is an ongoing search for cheap, natural, and biodegradable materials. One of them is starch – biodegradable and renewable polysaccharide. Food, pulp and paper, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, biomedical, textile adhesive, and packaging industries mainly need modified starches with improved processing properties compared to natural starch. Research on modification of starch for food and non-food purposes is very dispersed, and less well described. Therefore, there is a need for a Special Issue devoted to various methods of starch modification and the relationship between the structure of modified starches and their physicochemical, functional, processing, and environmental properties. This Special Issue will contain contributions discussing all the aspects that are broadly related to the keywords. Review articles by experts in the field are also welcome.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Chemistry.

Prof. Dr. Janusz Kapusniak
Dr. Idalina Gonçalves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Chemical modification
  • Physical modification
  • Enzymatic modification
  • Starch films
  • Starch-based biocomposites
  • Packaging materials
  • Porous starch
  • Modified nano-starch
  • Modified starch encapsulation
  • Starch foam
  • Starch-based aerogels

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Article
Properties of Ozone-Oxidized Tapioca Starch and Its Use in Coating of Fried Peanuts
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6281; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206281 - 17 Oct 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Oxidation of tapioca via ozone oxidation was carried out under different conditions in comparison with H2O2. The impact of ozonation on physicochemical properties of tapioca was studied and fried peanuts coated with different tapioca were characterized. Different ozone oxidation [...] Read more.
Oxidation of tapioca via ozone oxidation was carried out under different conditions in comparison with H2O2. The impact of ozonation on physicochemical properties of tapioca was studied and fried peanuts coated with different tapioca were characterized. Different ozone oxidation times (10, 20, and 30 min) and various pH values (5, 7, and 9) were used for tapioca modification. Tapioca oxidized by ozone for 20 min at pH 7 had higher swelling power (SP), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), and viscosity than the native counterpart (P < 0.05). This coincided with the higher carbonyl and carboxyl contents (P < 0.05). The highest frying expansion (FE) with the lowest hardness was attained for fried peanut coated with tapioca oxidized under the aforementioned condition. Therefore, oxidation of tapioca using ozone under optimal conditions could be a potential means to improve frying expansion as well as the crispiness of the fried coated peanuts. Full article
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Article
Development of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) Nut Starch Films Containing Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Leaf Essential Oil
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6114; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206114 - 10 Oct 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
There have been many studies on the development biodegradable films using starch isolated from various food sources as a substitute for synthetic plastic packaging films. In this study, starch was extracted from ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) nuts, which were mainly discarded and [...] Read more.
There have been many studies on the development biodegradable films using starch isolated from various food sources as a substitute for synthetic plastic packaging films. In this study, starch was extracted from ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) nuts, which were mainly discarded and considered an environment hazard. The prepared starch (GBS) was then used for the preparation of antioxidant films by incorporating various amounts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil (CZEO), which provides antioxidant activity. The prepared GBS films with CZEO were characterized by measuring physical, optical, and thermal properties, along with antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP) measurements. With the increasing amount of CZEO, the flexibility and antioxidant activities of the GBS films increased proportionally, whereas the tensile strength of the films decreased. The added CZEO also increased the water vapor permeability of the GBS films, and the microstructure of the GBS films was homogeneous overall. Therefore, the obtained results indicate that the developed GBS films containing CZEO are applicable as antioxidant food packaging. Full article
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Communication
Starch Granule Size and Morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana Starch-Related Mutants Analyzed during Diurnal Rhythm and Development
Molecules 2021, 26(19), 5859; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195859 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Transitory starch plays a central role in the life cycle of plants. Many aspects of this important metabolism remain unknown; however, starch granules provide insight into this persistent metabolic process. Therefore, monitoring alterations in starch granules with high temporal resolution provides one significant [...] Read more.
Transitory starch plays a central role in the life cycle of plants. Many aspects of this important metabolism remain unknown; however, starch granules provide insight into this persistent metabolic process. Therefore, monitoring alterations in starch granules with high temporal resolution provides one significant avenue to improve understanding. Here, a previously established method that combines LCSM and safranin-O staining for in vivo imaging of transitory starch granules in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana was employed to demonstrate, for the first time, the alterations in starch granule size and morphology that occur both throughout the day and during leaf aging. Several starch-related mutants were included, which revealed differences among the generated granules. In ptst2 and sex1-8, the starch granules in old leaves were much larger than those in young leaves; however, the typical flattened discoid morphology was maintained. In ss4 and dpe2/phs1/ss4, the morphology of starch granules in young leaves was altered, with a more rounded shape observed. With leaf development, the starch granules became spherical exclusively in dpe2/phs1/ss4. Thus, the presented data provide new insights to contribute to the understanding of starch granule morphogenesis. Full article
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Article
Effect of Continuous and Discontinuous Microwave-Assisted Heating on Starch-Derived Dietary Fiber Production
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5619; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185619 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Dietary fiber can be obtained by dextrinization, which occurs while heating starch in the presence of acids. During dextrinization, depolymerization, transglycosylation, and repolymerization occur, leading to structural changes responsible for increasing resistance to starch enzymatic digestion. The conventional dextrinization time can be decreased [...] Read more.
Dietary fiber can be obtained by dextrinization, which occurs while heating starch in the presence of acids. During dextrinization, depolymerization, transglycosylation, and repolymerization occur, leading to structural changes responsible for increasing resistance to starch enzymatic digestion. The conventional dextrinization time can be decreased by using microwave-assisted heating. The main objective of this study was to obtain dietary fiber from acidified potato starch using continuous and discontinuous microwave-assisted heating and to investigate the structure and physicochemical properties of the resulting dextrins. Dextrins were characterized by water solubility, dextrose equivalent, and color parameters (L* a* b*). Total dietary fiber content was measured according to the AOAC 2009.01 method. Structural and morphological changes were determined by means of SEM, XRD, DSC, and GC-MS analyses. Microwave-assisted dextrinization of potato starch led to light yellow to brownish products with increased solubility in water and diminished crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy. Dextrinization products contained glycosidic linkages and branched residues not present in native starch, indicative of its conversion into dietary fiber. Thus, microwave-assisted heating can induce structural changes in potato starch, originating products with a high level of dietary fiber content. Full article
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Article
Impacts of Hydrothermal Treatments on the Morphology, Structural Characteristics, and In Vitro Digestibility of Water Caltrop Starch
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4974; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164974 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 375
Abstract
The influence of hydrothermal treatments on the structural properties and digestibility of water caltrop starch was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed some small dents on the surface of starch granules for samples treated with heat moisture treatment (HMT), but not for samples [...] Read more.
The influence of hydrothermal treatments on the structural properties and digestibility of water caltrop starch was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed some small dents on the surface of starch granules for samples treated with heat moisture treatment (HMT), but not for samples treated with annealing (ANN) which generally showed smoother surfaces. The gelatinization temperature of starch was generally increased by hydrothermal treatments, accompanied by a trend of decreasing breakdown viscosity. These results implied the improvement of thermal and shearing stability, particularly for HMT in comparison to ANN. After being cooked, the native and ANN-modified water caltrop starch granules were essentially burst or destroyed. On the other hand, the margin of starch granules modified by HMT and dual hydrothermal treatments remained clear with some channels inside the starch granules. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystalline pattern of water caltrop starch changed from the CA-type to the A-type and the relative crystallinity reduced with increasing moisture levels of HMT. Results of ANN-modified water caltrop starch were mostly similar to those of the native one. Moreover, water caltrop starch modified with HMT20 and dual modification contained a pronouncedly higher resistant starch content. These results suggested that HMT, ANN, and dual modification effectively modified the functional properties of water caltrop starch. Full article
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Article
Starch Formates: Synthesis and Modification
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4882; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164882 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Starch can be efficiently converted into the corresponding formates homogeneously using N-formyl imidazole obtained by the reaction of 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole and formic acid in dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent. Starch formates are soluble in polar aprotic solvents, not susceptible against hydrolysis, and not [...] Read more.
Starch can be efficiently converted into the corresponding formates homogeneously using N-formyl imidazole obtained by the reaction of 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole and formic acid in dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent. Starch formates are soluble in polar aprotic solvents, not susceptible against hydrolysis, and not meltable. Thermoplastics could be generated by conversion of starch formates with long-chain fatty acids exemplified by the conversion with lauroyl chloride in N,N-dimethylacetamide, leading to mixed starch laurate formates. The mixed esters show melting temperatures mainly dependent on the amount of laurate ester moieties. Full article
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Article
Effect of Single and Dual Hydrothermal Treatments on the Resistant Starch Content and Physicochemical Properties of Lotus Rhizome Starches
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4339; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144339 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) changed the morphology and the degree of molecular ordering in lotus rhizome (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) starch granules slightly, leading to some detectable cavities or holes near hilum, weaker birefringence and granule agglomeration, accompanied with modified XRD pattern from C- [...] Read more.
Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) changed the morphology and the degree of molecular ordering in lotus rhizome (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) starch granules slightly, leading to some detectable cavities or holes near hilum, weaker birefringence and granule agglomeration, accompanied with modified XRD pattern from C- to A-type starch and lower relative crystallinity, particularly for high moisture HMT modification. In contrast, annealing (ANN) showed less impact on granule morphology, XRD pattern and relative crystallinity. All hydrothermal treatment decreased the resistant starch (from about 27.7–35.4% to 2.7–20%), increased the damage starch (from about 0.5–1.6% to 2.4–23.6%) and modified the functional and pasting properties of lotus rhizome starch pronouncedly. An increase in gelatinization temperature but a decrease in transition enthalpy occurred after hydrothermal modification, particularly for hydrothermal modification involved with HMT. HMT-modified starch also showed higher pasting temperature, less pronounced peak viscosity, leading to less significant thixotropic behavior and retrogradation during pasting-gelation process. However, single ANN treatment imparts a higher tendency of retrogradation as compared to native starch. For dual hydrothermally modified samples, the functional properties generally resembled to the behavior of single HMT-modified samples, indicating the pre- or post-ANN modification had less impact on the properties HMT modified lotus rhizome starch. Full article
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Communication
Determination of Activation Energies and the Optimum Temperatures of Hydrolysis of Starch by α-Amylase from Porcine Pancreas
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4117; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144117 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
The present paper reports the determination of the activation energies and the optimum temperatures of starch hydrolysis by porcine pancreas α-amylase. The parameters were estimated based on the literature data on the activity curves versus temperature for starch hydrolysis by α-amylase from [...] Read more.
The present paper reports the determination of the activation energies and the optimum temperatures of starch hydrolysis by porcine pancreas α-amylase. The parameters were estimated based on the literature data on the activity curves versus temperature for starch hydrolysis by α-amylase from porcine pancreas. It was assumed that both the hydrolysis reaction process and the deactivation process of α-amylase were first-order reactions by the enzyme concentration. A mathematical model describing the effect of temperature on porcine pancreas α-amylase activity was used. The determine deactivation energies Ea were from 19.82 ± 7.22 kJ/mol to 128.80 ± 9.27 kJ/mol, the obtained optimum temperatures Topt were in the range from 311.06 ± 1.10 K to 326.52 ± 1.75 K. In turn, the values of deactivation energies Ed has been noted in the range from 123.57 ± 14.17 kJ/mol to 209.37 ± 5.17 kJ/mol. The present study is related to the starch hydrolysis by α-amylase. In the industry, the obtained results the values Ea, Ed, Topt can be used to design and optimize starch hydrolysis by α-amylase porcine pancreas. The obtained results might also find application in research on the pharmaceutical preparations used to treat pancreatic insufficiency or prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Full article
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Article
Physicochemical Characterization of Resistant Starch Type-III (RS3) Obtained by Autoclaving Malanga (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) Flour and Corn Starch
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 4006; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134006 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
The feasibility of obtaining resistant starch type III (RS3) from malanga flour (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), as an unconventional source of starch, was evaluated using the hydrothermal treatment of autoclaving. The physicochemical characterization of RS3 made from malanga flour was carried out through [...] Read more.
The feasibility of obtaining resistant starch type III (RS3) from malanga flour (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), as an unconventional source of starch, was evaluated using the hydrothermal treatment of autoclaving. The physicochemical characterization of RS3 made from malanga flour was carried out through the evaluation of the chemical composition, color attributes, and thermal properties. In addition, the contents of the total starch, available starch, resistant starch, and retrograded resistant starch were determined by in vitro enzymatic tests. A commercial corn starch sample was used to produce RS3 and utilized to compare all of the analyses. The results showed that native malanga flour behaved differently in most of the evaluations performed, compared to the commercial corn starch. These results could be explained by the presence of minor components that could interfere with the physicochemical and functional properties of the flour; however, the RS3 samples obtained from malanga flour and corn starch were similar in their thermal and morphological features, which may be related to their similarities in the content and molecular weight of amylose, in both of the samples. Furthermore, the yields for obtaining the autoclaved powders from corn starch and malanga flour were similar (≈89%), which showed that the malanga flour is an attractive raw material for obtaining RS3 with adequate yields, to be considered in the subsequent research. Full article
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Article
Effect of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA) Modified Starches on the Rheological Properties of Dough and Characteristic of the Gluten-Free Bread
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082197 - 11 Apr 2021
Viewed by 784
Abstract
The study focused on the influence of starch modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) on the rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free dough containing corn and potato starch with the addition of pectin and guar gum as structure-forming substances. The starch blend used [...] Read more.
The study focused on the influence of starch modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) on the rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free dough containing corn and potato starch with the addition of pectin and guar gum as structure-forming substances. The starch blend used in the original dough recipe was partially (5% to 15%) replaced with OSA starch. The rheological properties of dough samples were determined, and the properties of the resulting bread were analyzed. It was found that the dough samples behaved as weak gels, and the values of storage and loss moduli (G′ and G″, respectively) significantly depended on angular frequency. Various shares of OSA starch in recipes modified dough in different ways, causing changes in its rheological characteristics. The introduction of OSA starch preparations resulted in changes in the bread volume and physical characteristics of the crumb. All the applied preparations caused an increase in bread porosity and the number of pores larger than 5 mm, and there was a parallel decrease in pore density. The presence of OSA starch preparations modified bread texture depending on the amount and type of the applied preparation. The introduction of OSA starches in gluten-free bread formulation caused a significant drop in the enthalpy of retrograded amylopectin decomposition, indicating a beneficial influence of such type of additive on staling retardation in gluten-free bread. Full article
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Article
Different Reactivity of Raw Starch from Diverse Potato Genotypes
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010226 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Potato starch is one of the most important renewable sources for industrial manufacturing of organic compounds. Currently, it is produced from mixed potato varieties that often are harvested from different fields. Meanwhile, tuber starches of various potato breeds differ in their crystallinity, granule [...] Read more.
Potato starch is one of the most important renewable sources for industrial manufacturing of organic compounds. Currently, it is produced from mixed potato varieties that often are harvested from different fields. Meanwhile, tuber starches of various potato breeds differ in their crystallinity, granule morphology, and other physical and chemical parameters. We studied the reactions of raw potato starches of different origins to chemical and biochemical reactions typically used for industrial starch modification. The results clearly demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the reactivity of the starches of different potato genotypes. While the main products of the transformations are the same, their preparative yields differ significantly. Thus, tuber starch of certain potato varieties may be more suitable for specific industrial purposes. Starch reactivity may potentially be a phenotypical trait for potato breeding to obtain potato starches for various industrial applications. Full article
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Article
Development of a Third Generation Snack of Rice Starch Enriched with Nopal Flour (Opuntia ficus indica)
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010054 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
This study aimed to obtain a third-generation snack from native rice starch (NS), rice starch modified by extrusion (MS), nopal flour (NF) and xanthan gum (XG). These raw materials were characterized by proximal analysis, pH, particle size distribution, water absorption index (WAI) and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to obtain a third-generation snack from native rice starch (NS), rice starch modified by extrusion (MS), nopal flour (NF) and xanthan gum (XG). These raw materials were characterized by proximal analysis, pH, particle size distribution, water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI), degree of substitution (DS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the response variables in the nine formulations of the snack: expansion index (EI), apparent density (AD), hardness (H), luminosity (L*) and tendency to green-red (a*), was performed through a composite central design (CCD), the selected formulations were characterized by SEM. Results showed an increase in WAI, 4.69 ± 0.04, and WSI, 12.61 ± 0.10, for MS, higher than NS values due to chemical modification. According to the color analysis the NF obtained a value of 60.73 ± 0.008 in L* and −6.51 ± 0.004 in a* with green tendency. The DS value obtained was 0.09 ± 0.005, being within the FDA’s permissible range for food use. By FTIR analysis, the acetyl group was corroborated. Finally, employing microwave cooking, snacks made from NS with concentrations of NF (5%) and XG (0%) obtained the highest EI value, 4.47, as well the low Dap and D value (0.37 g/cm3, 2.25 N, respectively), corroborated by SEM analysis. Full article
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Article
Properties of High-Swelling Native Starch Treated by Heat–Moisture Treatment with Different Holding Times and Iterations
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5528; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235528 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
Tapioca and potato starches were used to investigate the effect of heat–moisture treatment (HMT; 95–96 °C, 0–60 min, 1–6 iterations) on gelatinization properties, swelling power (SP), solubility and pasting properties. Tapioca starch had similar content and degree of polymerization of amylose, but a [...] Read more.
Tapioca and potato starches were used to investigate the effect of heat–moisture treatment (HMT; 95–96 °C, 0–60 min, 1–6 iterations) on gelatinization properties, swelling power (SP), solubility and pasting properties. Tapioca starch had similar content and degree of polymerization of amylose, but a higher amylopectin short/long chain ratio, to potato starch. After HMT, the gelatinization temperature range was narrowed for tapioca starch, but was widened for potato starch. Decreases in SP and solubility were less for tapioca than potato starches, coinciding with a progressive shift to the moderate-swelling pasting profile for tapioca but a drastic change to the restricted-swelling profile for potato. Moreover, decreasing extents of SP and maximum viscosity for HMT tapioca starch were, respectively, in the range of 47–63% and 0–36%, and those of HMT potato starch were 89–92% and 63–94%. These findings indicate that the granule expansion and viscosity change of starch during gelatinization can be tailored stepwise by altering the HMT holding time and iteration. Full article
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