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Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 17879

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Analysis and Evaluation of Food Quality, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Balicka 122 Str., 30-149 Kraków, Poland
Interests: food analysis; food rheology; food additives; polysaccharides; starch; honey
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Guest Editor
Department of Dietetics and Food Studies, Faculty of Science & Technology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: chemical and biochemical modifications of polysaccharides; starch; dietary fiber; resistant starch resistant dextrins; prebiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polysaccharides are an important group of natural polymers used in living organisms as a building and reserve material. This group is characterized by great diversity in terms of structure, place of occurrence and properties. Due to their complex nature and the resulting diversified physicochemical properties, polysaccharides play an important role in food production. They are a naturally occurring energy component in many foodstuffs, and at the same time, they play a structural role. Polysaccharides are commonly used as food ingredients and additives added to food during technological processes. They are also widely used as thickeners and gelling, emulsifying, filling and stabilizing substances. Their use has a positive effect on the structure, sensory characteristics and physical stability of many food products. Many natural polysaccharides are also subjected to various types of modifications in order to improve their functional properties. The health aspects related to the presence of polysaccharides in food are also important. Some of them are the basis of fat substitutes in the production of energy-reduced food, others possess prebiotic properties, and others still are individual fractions of dietary fiber, positively influencing many functions of the human body. Traditional polysaccharides, characteristic of foodstuffs, are also widely used outside direct food production, in industries related to food production and distribution, such as biotechnology or the production of biodegradable and active packaging.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to identify and review the latest research findings on polysaccharides present in food and used in the food and related industries. We cordially invite you to contribute to this Special Issue in the form of both review articles and original research results. They can cover all aspects related to food polysaccharides, including structure, properties, analysis, modifications, practical applications and impacts on human health.

Prof. Dr. Lesław Juszczak
Prof. Dr. Janusz Kapusniak
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food polysaccharides
  • food gums
  • food additives
  • dietary fiber
  • structure
  • properties
  • functions
  • application
  • bioactivity

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1804 KiB  
Article
Production of Resistant Starch by Roasting Retrograded Starch with Glucose
by Małgorzata Kapelko-Żeberska, Tomasz Zięba, Marta Meisel, Krzysztof Buksa and Artur Gryszkin
Molecules 2024, 29(12), 2883; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29122883 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 308
Abstract
Starch is a natural plant raw material applicable in many areas of industry. In practice, it is most often used in a modified form, i.e., after various treatments aimed at modifying its properties. Modifications of native starch enable producing resistant starch, which, as [...] Read more.
Starch is a natural plant raw material applicable in many areas of industry. In practice, it is most often used in a modified form, i.e., after various treatments aimed at modifying its properties. Modifications of native starch enable producing resistant starch, which, as a prebiotic with confirmed health-promoting properties, has been increasingly used as a food additive. The present study aimed to determine the effect of roasting retrograded starch with the addition of anhydrous glucose at different temperatures (110, 130 or 150 °C) and different times (5 or 24 h) on the modified starch’s properties. The results of high-performance size-exclusion chromatography coupled with refractive index detector (HPSEC/RI) analysis and the changes observed in the solubility of starch roasted with glucose in DMSO, as well as in its other properties, confirm the changes in its molecular structure, including thermolytic degradation and the ongoing polymerization of starch with added glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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12 pages, 880 KiB  
Article
An Attempt to Replace Pure Citric Acid with Natural Lemon Juice during Potato Starch Esterification
by Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Ewa Zdybel, Małgorzata Kapelko-Żeberska, Bartosz Raszewski, Krzysztof Buksa, Agnieszka Maj, Tomasz Zięba and Artur Gryszkin
Molecules 2024, 29(11), 2687; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29112687 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The application of chemical operations in food processing, in which pure chemical compounds are used to modify food ingredients, often raises social concerns. One of the most frequently modified dietary substances is starch, e.g., E1401–E1404, E1412–E1414, E1420, E1422, E1440, E1442, and E1450–E1452. An [...] Read more.
The application of chemical operations in food processing, in which pure chemical compounds are used to modify food ingredients, often raises social concerns. One of the most frequently modified dietary substances is starch, e.g., E1401–E1404, E1412–E1414, E1420, E1422, E1440, E1442, and E1450–E1452. An alternative solution to chemical treatments seems to be the use of raw materials naturally containing substrates applied for starch modification. Heating starch with a lemon juice concentrate can be considered a novel and effective method for producing starch citrate, which is part of the so-called “green chemistry”. The modified preparations obtained as a result of potato starch esterification with natural lemon juice had a comparable degree of esterification to that of the esters produced with pure citric acid. In addition, the use of the juice doubled their resistance to amylolytic enzymes compared to the preparations made with pure acid. Replacing citric acid with lemon juice can facilitate the esterification process, and the analyzed properties of both types of modified preparations indicate that starch esters produced with pure citric acid can be successfully replaced by those produced using natural lemon juice, which may increase the social acceptance of these modified preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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17 pages, 16717 KiB  
Article
Insight into Rheological Properties and Structure of Native Waxy Starches: Cluster Analysis Grouping
by Jacek Lewandowicz, Joanna Le Thanh-Blicharz and Artur Szwengiel
Molecules 2024, 29(11), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29112669 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Recent interest in the use of waxy starches in food production is due to the possibility of replacing chemically modified starches as texture-forming agents with native starch analogues. However, there is a lack of a coherent research comparing different varieties of commercially available [...] Read more.
Recent interest in the use of waxy starches in food production is due to the possibility of replacing chemically modified starches as texture-forming agents with native starch analogues. However, there is a lack of a coherent research comparing different varieties of commercially available waxy starches with respect to their molecular and functional properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare native waxy starches from potatoes, corn, and rice, with particular attention to rheological characteristics in relation to molecular structure. The investigated potato, corn, and rice starch preparations were characterized by significantly different molecular properties due to both botanical origin of starch and variety. The molecular weights of waxy starches were significantly higher than those of their normal counterparts. This phenomenon was accompanied by a more loose conformation of the waxy starch macromolecule in solution. The presence of amylose confers the ability to coagulate starch sol into gel, resulting in substantial changes in the rheological properties of starch paste, and waxy starch pastes being characterized by more viscous flow and smoother texture. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that differences between functional properties are more notable for normal than for waxy preparations, in which potato starch, regardless of its variety, was characterized by the most unique characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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18 pages, 8939 KiB  
Article
Acylated Inulin as a Potential Shale Hydration Inhibitor in Water Based Drilling Fluids for Wellbore Stabilization
by Kaihe Lv, Haokun Shen, Jinsheng Sun, Xianbin Huang and Hongyan Du
Molecules 2024, 29(7), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29071456 - 24 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
Shale hydration dispersion and swelling are primary causes of wellbore instability in oil and gas reservoir exploration. In this study, inulin, a fructo-oligosaccharide extracted from Jerusalem artichoke roots, was modified by acylation with three acyl chlorides, and the products (C10-, C12-, and C14-inulin) [...] Read more.
Shale hydration dispersion and swelling are primary causes of wellbore instability in oil and gas reservoir exploration. In this study, inulin, a fructo-oligosaccharide extracted from Jerusalem artichoke roots, was modified by acylation with three acyl chlorides, and the products (C10-, C12-, and C14-inulin) were investigated for their use as novel shale hydration inhibitors. The inhibition properties were evaluated through the shale cuttings hot-rolling dispersion test, the sodium-based bentonite hydration test, and capillary suction. The three acylated inulins exhibited superb hydration-inhibiting performance at low concentrations, compared to the commonly used inhibitors of KCl and poly (ester amine). An inhibition mechanism was proposed based on surface tension measurements, contact angle measurements, Fourier-transform infrared analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The acylated inulin reduced the water surface tension significantly, thus, retarding the invasion of water into the shale formation. Then, the acylated inulin was adsorbed onto the shale surface by hydrogen bonding to form a compact, sealed, hydrophobic membrane. Furthermore, the acylated inulins are non-toxic and biodegradable, which meet the increasingly stringent environmental regulations in this field. This method might provide a new avenue for developing high-performance and ecofriendly shale hydration inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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15 pages, 3554 KiB  
Article
Mucilage from Yellow Pitahaya (Selenicereus megalanthus) Fruit Peel: Extraction, Proximal Analysis, and Molecular Characterization
by María Carolina Otálora, Andrea Wilches-Torres and Jovanny A. Gómez Castaño
Molecules 2023, 28(2), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28020786 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2981
Abstract
Mucilage is a hydrophilic biopolymeric material of interest in the food industry due to its high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and gelling and thickening capacities, which is present in high concentration in agricultural by-products, such as the peel of cacti fruits. [...] Read more.
Mucilage is a hydrophilic biopolymeric material of interest in the food industry due to its high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and gelling and thickening capacities, which is present in high concentration in agricultural by-products, such as the peel of cacti fruits. In this work, the powdered mucilage extracted from the peel of yellow pitahaya (Selenicereus megalanthus) fruit was characterized using a multi-technical approach that included proximal analysis (proteins, lipids, crude fiber, ash, and carbohydrates), as well as structural (FTIR, NMR, UPLC-QTOF-MS, and X-ray diffraction), colorimetric (CIELab parameters), morphological (SEM), and thermal (DSC/TGA) methods. Likewise, its total content of dietary fiber and polyphenols, as well as its antioxidant activity, were determined. This dried mucilage presented a light pale yellow-reddish color, attributed to the presence of betalains (bioactive pigments with high antioxidant activity). The FTIR spectrum revealed functional groups associated with a low presence of proteins (5.45 ± 0.04%) and a high concentration of oligosaccharides (55.26 ± 0.10%). A zeta potential of −29.90 ± 0.90 mV was determined, denoting an anionic nature that favors the use of this mucilage as a stable colloidal dispersion. UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed a major oligosaccharide composition based on galacturonic acid units in anionic form. SEM micrographs revealed a cracked morphology composed of amorphous and irregular particles. According to the DSC/TGA results, this mucilage can be introduced as a new source of hydrocolloids in food processes since it has high thermal stability that has been manifested up to 373.87 °C. In addition, this biopolymer exhibited a high content of polyphenols (25.00 ± 0.01-g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100-g sample), dietary fiber (70.51%), and antioxidant activity (1.57 ± 0.01 mmol Trolox equivalents/kg of sample). It was concluded that this mucilaginous material presents sufficient physicochemical and functional conditions to be used as a nutritional ingredient, thus giving valorization to this agricultural by-product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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Review

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19 pages, 1008 KiB  
Review
Chemically Modified Starches as Food Additives
by Dorota Gałkowska, Kamila Kapuśniak and Lesław Juszczak
Molecules 2023, 28(22), 7543; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28227543 - 11 Nov 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
Starch is a renewable and multifunctional polysaccharide biopolymer that is widely used both in the food industry and other areas of the economy. However, due to a number of undesirable properties in technological processes, it is subjected to various modifications. They improve its [...] Read more.
Starch is a renewable and multifunctional polysaccharide biopolymer that is widely used both in the food industry and other areas of the economy. However, due to a number of undesirable properties in technological processes, it is subjected to various modifications. They improve its functional properties and enable the starch to be widely used in various industries. A modified starch is a natural starch that has been treated in a way that changes one or more of its initial physical and/or chemical properties. Chemical modification consists of the introduction of functional groups into starch molecules, which result in specific changes in the physicochemical and functional properties of starch preparations. The bases of chemical modifications of starch are oxidation, esterification or etherification reactions. In terms of functionality, modified preparations include cross-linked and stabilized starches. These starches have the status of allowed food additives, and their use is strictly regulated by relevant laws. Large-scale scientific research is aimed at developing new methods of starch modification, and the use of innovative technological solutions allows for an increasingly wider use of such preparations. This paper characterizes chemically modified starches used as food additives, including the requirements for such preparations and the directions of their practical application. Health-promoting aspects of the use of chemically modified starches concerning resistant starch type RS4, encapsulation of bioactive ingredients, starch fat substitutes, and carriers of microelements are also described. The topic of new trends in the use of chemically modified starches, including the production of biodegradable films, edible coatings, and nanomaterials, is also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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27 pages, 2308 KiB  
Review
Extraction, Purification, Structural Characteristics, Health Benefits, and Application of the Polysaccharides from Lonicera japonica Thunb.: A Review
by Xinpeng Yang, Aiqi Yu, Wenjing Hu, Zhaojiong Zhang, Ye Ruan, Haixue Kuang and Meng Wang
Molecules 2023, 28(12), 4828; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28124828 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3077
Abstract
Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a widely distributed plant with ornamental, economic, edible, and medicinal values. L. japonica is a phytoantibiotic with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and a potent therapeutic effect on various infectious diseases. The anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-depression, antioxidative, immunoregulatory, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, [...] Read more.
Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a widely distributed plant with ornamental, economic, edible, and medicinal values. L. japonica is a phytoantibiotic with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and a potent therapeutic effect on various infectious diseases. The anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-depression, antioxidative, immunoregulatory, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-gout, and anti-alcohol-addiction effects of L. japonica can also be explained by bioactive polysaccharides isolated from this plant. Several researchers have determined the molecular weight, chemical structure, and monosaccharide composition and ratio of L. japonica polysaccharides by water extraction and alcohol precipitation, enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and chromatography. This article searched in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Flora of China, Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI databases within the last 12 years, using “Lonicera. japonica polysaccharides”, “Lonicera. japonica Thunb. polysaccharides”, and “Honeysuckle polysaccharides” as the key word, systematically reviewed the extraction and purification methods, structural characteristics, structure-activity relationship, and health benefits of L. japonica polysaccharides to provide insights for future studies. Further, we elaborated on the potential applications of L. japonica polysaccharides in the food, medicine, and daily chemical industry, such as using L. japonica as raw material to make lozenges, soy sauce and toothpaste, etc. This review will be a useful reference for the further optimization of functional products developed from L. japonica polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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28 pages, 2521 KiB  
Review
Extraction, Purification, Structural Characteristics, Biological Activity and Application of Polysaccharides from Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane): A Review
by Meng Wang, Caijiao Li, Jiaye Li, Wenjing Hu, Aiqi Yu, Haipeng Tang, Jiayan Li, Haixue Kuang and Huijie Zhang
Molecules 2023, 28(12), 4813; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28124813 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2614
Abstract
Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) is a widely distributed plant with a long history of cultivation and consumption. Notably, polysaccharides obtained from purslane exhibit surprising and satisfactory biological activities, which explain the various benefits of purslane on human health, including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor, antifatigue, [...] Read more.
Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) is a widely distributed plant with a long history of cultivation and consumption. Notably, polysaccharides obtained from purslane exhibit surprising and satisfactory biological activities, which explain the various benefits of purslane on human health, including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor, antifatigue, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. This article systematically reviews the extraction and purification methods, chemical structure, chemical modification, biological activity and other aspects of polysaccharides from purslane collected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Flora of China, Web of Science, PubMed, Baidu Scholar, Google Scholar and CNKI databases in the last 14 years, using the keywords “Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides” and “purslane polysaccharides”. The application of purslane polysaccharides in different fields is also summarized, and its application prospects are also discussed. This paper provides an updated and deeper understanding of purslane polysaccharides, which will provide useful guidance for the further optimization of polysaccharide structures and the development of purslane polysaccharides as a novel functional material, as well as a theoretical basis for its further research and application in human health and manufacturing development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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22 pages, 2380 KiB  
Review
Extraction, Purification, Structural Characteristics, Biological Activities, and Applications of the Polysaccharides from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Ginger): A Review
by Wenjing Hu, Aiqi Yu, Shuang Wang, Qianxiang Bai, Haipeng Tang, Bingyou Yang, Meng Wang and Haixue Kuang
Molecules 2023, 28(9), 3855; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28093855 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3781
Abstract
Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) is a widely distributed plant with a long history of cultivation and consumption. Ginger can be used as a spice, condiment, food, nutrition, and as an herb. Significantly, the polysaccharides extracted from ginger show surprising and satisfactory biological activity, [...] Read more.
Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) is a widely distributed plant with a long history of cultivation and consumption. Ginger can be used as a spice, condiment, food, nutrition, and as an herb. Significantly, the polysaccharides extracted from ginger show surprising and satisfactory biological activity, which explains the various benefits of ginger on human health, including anti-influenza, anti-colitis, anti-tussive, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor effects. Here, we systematically review the major studies on the extraction and purification of polysaccharides from ginger in recent years, the characterization of their chemical structure, biological activity, and structure–activity relationships, and the applications of ginger polysaccharides in different fields. This article will update and deepen the understanding of ginger polysaccharide and provide a theoretical basis for its further research and application in human health and product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Polysaccharides: Structure, Properties and Application II)
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